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Вестник самарского государственного экономического университета
Vestnik of Samara State University of Economics
2022 №6 (212)
Methodological and practical aspects of assessing the export competitiveness of a region (on the example of the Yaroslavl region)
Abstract. Scientific approaches to understanding the export competitiveness at the level of the country and a separate firm have been developed and formed in the modern economic thinking. According to the authors, it is necessary to strengthen the regional context of export competitiveness studies. The purpose of this article is to adapt the methodology of the global ranking of countries depending on the value of the export competitiveness index to the regional level, to identify changes in the commodity structure of exports of the Yaroslavl region and the economies of adjacent regions comparable to it, and to measure their export competitiveness. The article describes some methodical provisions of assessment with an indication of their advantages and limitations, demonstrates the selection of regions-competitors. In the article, the authors calculated the export competitiveness index and its three composite indicators on the basis of statistical data on industrial exports of different processing degrees for 5 constituent entities of the Russian Federation for the period from 2016 to 2020. The authors carried out the analysis of the Yaroslavl region export competitiveness in terms of dynamics and structure by categories of exports and by different degrees of non-energy exports processing. As a result, the authors identified directions for the state policy improvement in the field of the Yaroslavl region industrial export development.
Keywords: export competitiveness, industrial exports, export sophistication, economic scale of the region, gross value added, structural differences, volume of exports, import substitution policy Highlights: ♦ the authors revealed the content of the methodology, as well as the information base of the export competitiveness analysis in relation to the regional economy; ♦ the authors proposed a comprehensive algorithm for selecting regions to be included in the outline of the export competitiveness analysis of the region, which is the object of the study; the selection is based on determining the level of structural differences between regions in terms of the industry structure of gross added value, commodity structure, categories of exports and its processing degrees; ♦ the authors selected regions to assess the export competitiveness of the Yaroslavl region economy; calculated the export competitiveness index for the selected regions; formulated conclusions regarding the export opportunities and exports sophistication of these regions, as well as proposals to improve the export competitiveness of the Yaroslavl region economy.
Email:karachev2011@yandex.ru; kaplinaov@mail.ru
Сведения:Igor A. Karachev, Olga V. Kaplina - P.G. Demidov Yaroslavl State University, Yaroslavl, Russia
Viral marketing as company promotion instrument
Abstract. The article deals with the modern approach to solving marketing issues such as promotion and competitive advantage development by force of viral marketing. Specific features of viral marketing, its key idea as one of the most unusual ways to promote company and its product are investigate.
Keywords: marketing, viral marketing, competition, advertising Highlights: ♦ description of the economic essence and main functions of viral marketing; ♦ identifying advantages and disadvantages of viral marketing as an organization promotion tool; ♦ research of using viral marketing`s modern methods to promote the organization.
Email:ekaterinsmolin@yandex.ru; nik.parisenkov@mail.ru
Сведения:Ekaterina S. Smolina, Nikita S. Parisenkov - Samara State University of Economics, Samara, Russia
Financial transformation of enterprise management in modern conditions
Abstract. The article analyzes possibilities of financial transformation of management in the conditions of sanctions economic processes. An analysis of the financial transformation of the company management determined a concept of a comprehensive review of financial transformations that contribute to the neutralization of sanctions conditions using innovative and digital technologies for this. The basis for the development and improvement of activities in the modern world is the introduction of new technologies and products that contribute to a qualitative increase in the effectiveness of processes. An analysis of approaches to the transformation of activities during the period of sanctions was carried out using the example of large companies in the Russian Federation. The conclusion is formulated that in the future, overcoming emerging restrictions or adapting to them will form a new economic pole.
Keywords: innovation funding, financial transformation, economic sanctions, economic pole, capitalization and competitiveness of the enterprise, import substitution Highlights: ♦ new economic conditions have an impact on enterprises and force them to look differently at the financial system for building organization management in the Russian Federation; ♦ the sustainability of the economic environment at the present stage depends to a greater extent on the implementation of innovative activities; ♦ under the current economic restrictions the transformational concept of management is one of the most important prerequisites for reducing risks and increasing the socio-economic efficiency for the development of enterprises with different ownership structures in various sectors of the economy; ♦ the mobility to the conditions of a changing external environment and the speed of adaptation to it is a key factor in the development of the economy of the Russian Federation; ♦ sanctions and their consequences lead to an imbalance in the economic interests of the owners of organizations, to a decrease in the quality of management. To the greatest extent, this affects companies that work with international counterparties, as well as legal entities with foreign participation.
Email:lena_scher@mail.ru; tchemerchei@yandex.ru
Сведения:Elena N. Sheremetyeva, Viacheslav B. Chemerchey - Samara State University of Economics, Samara, Russia
Increase in the labor productivity as a condition for raising wages
Abstract. The most important factor in the effective operation of any business entity is the rational use of resources, including labor. Labor productivity characterizes the degree of return, the effectiveness of the use of labor resources in the production process as one of the important factors of production (land, labor, capital). In the market economy, the growth of this indicator is not the main goal of the employer, and for this reason, the level of wages is not always directly dependent on the level of the labor productivity. With a decrease in labor costs due to an increase in the labor productivity, but inefficient use of other factors, it is possible to obtain uncompetitive products that do not bring profit. Therefore, the employer is interested not only in the labor productivity, but also in the efficiency of all factors in general. The subject of the study is the prevailing relationship between the indicators of the labor productivity and wages in the Russian Federation in dynamics. The research purpose is to study the monetary incomes of the population, their structure, wages and factors affecting its level (capital-labor ratio, investment in human capital, etc.). The study used analysis, synthesis, generalization, grouping, dynamics, comparison, tabular method, method of induction, deduction. The studied phenomena are considered in their interrelation. According to the results of the study, Russia`s lag behind the advanced countries was established both in terms of the labor productivity and wages. A sharp differentiation of wages by the activity type was revealed, in the regions, a significant part of the population has average per capita incomes below the subsistence level. The values of the coefficient of funds, the Gini coefficient remain high. In the monetary income of the population, income from the labor activity does not exceed 60%, the share of social payments is large. The current low level of income and wages is a consequence of the strict regulation of wages at enterprises in pre-market conditions. In various sectors of the economy, the value of the indicator of the labor productivity is understood differently (for example, in trade, consumer services, transport, etc.). Without a real increase in wages at organizations, without taking into account the growth in the labor productivity, it is impossible to solve the task of a sharp decrease in the proportion of the population with cash incomes below the subsistence level. It should also be taken into account that in the conditions of market relations, the employer is interested not only in the efficient use of labor resources, but in general the competitiveness of products, which is provided by other factors of production.
Keywords: labor productivity, wages, incomes below the subsistence level, coefficient of funds, Gini coefficient, capital-labor ratio, capital productivity, GDP, investment, wage indexation Highlights: ♦ wages occupy a large place in the basis of the social status of the population. Acting as a payment for labor, it is designed to stimulate high-performance labor, which largely depends on the correct organization of the labor motivation system at the enterprise; ♦ in connection with the transition to market relations, state regulation of wages has been weakened, primarily at enterprises that are not related to the public sector. The level of wages at enterprises is low. At the same time, due to lack of funds, employers do not index the amount of wages provided for by law; ♦ the gap between high-paid and low-paid workers is large (more than 14 times), a significant part of the income is concentrated in 40% of the population. All this requires strengthening the participation of the state in the regulation of remuneration issues.
Сведения:Nikolay Z. Zotikov - I.N. Ulyanov Chuvash State University, Cheboksary, Russia
Transformation of regional labor markets during the pandemic crisis
Abstract. The relevance of the study is due to the need to analyze the ongoing changes in the labor market in the Russian regions during the pandemic as a basis for the development of stabilizing public policy measures. The purpose of the study is to identify regional trends in the Russian labor market formed in the context of the pandemic crisis, as well as to develop recommendations on the choice of tools for regional post-crisis recovery policy. The scientific novelty of the research consists in revealing transformation directions of regional labor markets in Russia during the pandemic crisis, as well as in determining the potential of new managerial technologies to ensure their balanced development. The authors systematized prerequisites for the transformation of the Russian labor market in the pre-pandemic period and at the stage of active development of the pandemic. The directions of regional transformations of the Russian labor market under the influence of the pandemic are assessed, and its positive and negative trends are identified. The regional dynamics of the employed population at the stage of the active development of the pandemic is analyzed, structural shifts are identified, and a new trend in the development of freelancing in the labor markets of Russian regions is substantiated. The conclusion is made about the multidirectional impact of the pandemic on the Russian labor market, which led to its structural transformations in the regions, as well as the expediency of using the potential of new managerial technologies to level the negative manifestations of the pandemic crisis.
Keywords: labor market, region, pandemic, pandemic crisis, unemployment, labor market tension, employment Highlights: ♦ the analysis of the dynamics of indicators of the development of the Russian labor market in 20192020 has been carried out, the negative pandemic dynamics of the growth of unemployment and the reduction of the number of employed in the regions has been revealed; ♦ specific features of the impact of the pandemic on the development of regional labor markets in Russia are revealed, the formation of new pandemic trends is substantiated; ♦ it is proved that the use of the potential of new management technologies for leveling the negative manifestations of the pandemic crisis will contribute to the accelerated recovery of regional labor markets.
Email:kalinal@yandex.ru; alexander.abalakin@yandex.ru; mirgorod_e_e@mail.ru; abejlin-a@yandex.ru
Сведения:Alexander R. Kalinin, Alexander A. Abalakin - Moscow Financial and Industrial University "Synergy", Moscow, Russia; Ekaterina E. Mirgorod - Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow, Russia; Anna F. Beilina - Voronezh State Pedagogical University, Voronezh, Russia
Main factors affecting turnover rates of Russian companies
Abstract. This article considers a problem of staff turnover at Russian enterprises in modern conditions. The concept of personnel turnover is defined, statistical data on the topic of research in recent years are analyzed, the advantages and disadvantages of the phenomenon of staff turnover are reflected in the work. The factors affecting staff turnover and the causes of turnover at Russian enterprises are highlighted, also the labor movement in the Samara region is considered. Within the framework of this topic, the author conducted an analysis of opinions, used sociological methods (statistical and expert assessments, the questionnaire method), on the basis of which conclusions about the main reasons for the high turnover of personnel were drawn. As a result, the proposed solutions and effective tools to prevent and reduce fluctuation are also a significant outcome of the study.
Keywords: turnover of staff, staff turnover rate, employee adaptation, fluidity factors of Russian enterprises, human resource management, innovative environment, employee retention strategies and tools, reduction of personnel fluidity Highlights: ♦ consideration of the level of staff turnover of enterprises in Russia and the Samara region, identification of the causes of high staff turnover based on the analysis of research; ♦ investigation of the factors of dismissal of employees by conducting a questionnaire; ♦ proposal of measures to reduce staff turnover.
Email:e-troshina@yandex.ru; alinenaria@mail.ru
Сведения:Elena P. Troshina - Samara State University of Economics, Samara, Russia; Alina D. Tikhonova - Samara branch No. 6991 of Sberbank PJSC, Samara, Russia
Current trends in the development and functioning of the securities market in Russia
Abstract. The modern securities market, like any highly organized system, has its own infrastructure, which is formed by various institutions present on the market. The structure of the securities market is represented by information and legal registration support. These types of activities are provided by a combination of many organizations operating in the securities market and having, if necessary, appropriate licenses. This article examines the current trends in the development and functioning of the Russian securities market. The obtained results made it possible to formulate proposals for improving the Russian securities market in modern conditions.
Keywords: securities market, institute of issuers, investors, organizational and legal form, companies Highlights: ♦ the greatest effect from the functioning of the securities market is provided by bringing the market infrastructure to international standards, as well as by increasing the financial literacy of citizens of the Russian Federation, through the development of the market of industrial securities and the market of collective investment; ♦ in the financial market, state participation is necessary, especially in matters of providing state guarantees and increasing the exchange infrastructure, which helps to reduce risks when using pension and credit system funds in stock market instruments; ♦ the dependence of activity on the securities market on the mass of investments, on the activity of the population of the country and capital requirements from the market regulator and licensing rules for new companies is revealed; ♦ the trend in the number of professional participants is negative, which proves a decrease in the activity in the Russian financial market, in addition, the possibility of opening an individual investment account for individuals allows you to optimize the costs of private investors for intermediary services.
Сведения:Diana A. Kurazova - Kadyrov Chechen State University, Grozny, Russia
Regulation of credit institutions by the Bank of Russia in the face of external challenges
Abstract. The presented study is devoted to the study of the theoretical foundations of banking regulation of credit institutions by the Bank of Russia, the analysis of the current practice of using the most important regulatory instruments, the consideration of the content and purpose of the risk-based approach to banking regulation carried out by the Bank of Russia. Prospects for the development of the regulatory and supervisory activities of the Bank of Russia for credit institutions in the face of external challenges are outlined.
Keywords: Bank of Russia regulation of credit institutions, Bank of Russia supervision, risk-oriented supervision, differentiated approach to Bank of Russia regulation, Bank of Russia key interest rate, mandatory ratios of banks, mandatory reserve requirements Highlights: ♦ the interrelation of regulation and supervision of the Bank of Russia is revealed; ♦ the content of the risk-oriented approach in the Bank of Russia`s regulation of the activities of credit institutions was considered; ♦ the author`s proposals were formulated to improve the regulation and supervision of the activities of credit institutions of the Bank of Russia in the face of external challenges.
Email:marinatershukova@yandex.ru; abramov1998@mail.ru
Сведения:Marina B. Tershukova, Vitaly S. Abramov - Samara State University of Economics, Samara, Russia
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