|Вестник самарского государственного экономического университета
Vestnik of Samara State University of Economics
|2022 №4 (210)
|Dadykin V.S., Dadykina O.V.|
|Improving the tools of economic assessment of the regional mineral resource complex based on the ontological approach|
|Abstract. The relevance of improving the tools for the economic assessment of the mineral resource complex of a region in the field of subsoil use and the economy of mineral raw materials is due to the increasing complexity of the field development, the peculiarity of collecting information about objects of the mineral resource base upon completion of a separate stage of work or the entire complex of geological exploration. The exploration industry in some regions is currently in a situation of searching for sources to fill the shortage of reserves, or in a situation of the need to re-evaluate them in order to put into operation new sections of existing fields. Therefore, there is a need to carry out a revaluation of reserves at existing fields and an assessment of reserves of new subsurface areas where forecast resources have been identified or additional exploration work is required. Diagnostic information systems have quite a lot of experience in various branches and fields of activity, however, in the field of mineral raw materials economics, this type of software products is used very limited. It should be noted here that it is necessary to conduct comprehensive monitoring of the mineral resources supply of enterprises, to attract investors to the development of mineral resources of the undistributed subsoil fund, to plan the rational development of subsurface objects in order to prevent the formation of a shortage of reserves and forecast reserve.
Keywords: economic assessment, assessment tools, monitoring, geological exploration, mineral resource complex
♦ the proposed tools for the economic assessment of the mineral resource complex of the region, based on ontological modeling, take into account the factor economic analysis in the process of monitoring geological and economic indicators;
♦ the tools of economic assessment of the mineral resource complex of the region will allow methodologically complete issues of economic assessment of the objects of the mineral resource complex, on the one hand, and issues of designing ontological models in the field of the economy of mineral raw materials on the other hand.
|Сведения:||Valery S. Dadykin, Olga V. Dadykina - Bryansk State Technical University, Bryansk, Russia||9|
|Budgets of municipalities as a financial basis for their economic security|
|Abstract. In the current economic conditions, characterized by increased sanctions pressure on our country, the urgent issues are the successful development of subjects of the Russian Federation, the territories of the country, the creation of mechanisms to counter external and internal threats and exports, which is impossible without the successful development of local budgets as grassroots links of the budget system. The most important and necessary condition for the successful development of territories is to increase the balance and sustainability of budgets at all levels, including local ones, which enhances the relevance of the financial security of local budgets by strengthening their revenue base, which ultimately ensures their economic security. The purpose of this research is to study possibilities of local budgets in ensuring the economic security. With the help of general economic research methods, the trends of changes in the number of municipalities, sources of income generation for local budgets in the whole country and in the context of federal districts, the dynamics of changes in debt obligations were studied. As a result, the tendencies of decrease in the share of own incomes with an increase in the share of gratuitous receipts, an increase in debts of local budgets are revealed. The author came to the conclusion that it is impossible to improve the financial condition of municipalities without a significant change in the fiscal mechanism. We are talking about re-fixing tax revenues provided by the Tax Code of the Russian Federation in favor of local budgets, which will lead to an increase in their financial independence, weakening their dependence on the federal center. The results of the study can be used in the selection of development areas of territories, the formation of fiscal policy.
Keywords: budget, municipalities, own revenues, tax and non-tax revenues, intergovernmental transfers, deficit, subsidies, municipal debt
♦ local budgets are one of the links of the country`s budget system; recently, there has been a tendency to reduce the number of municipalities, especially rural settlements, which is associated with their merger, unification due to the lack of a tax base on their territories;
♦ the financial problems of local budgets are related to the fact that the tax revenues of their budgets grow more slowly than the total amount of budget revenues, and therefore the share of inter-budget transfers does not decrease because of the inefficiency of taxes assigned to them; despite the subsidization, the ratio between the maximum and minimum values of per capita monetary income does not decrease (for rural settlements, the gap remains at the level of 28 times); the situation is complicated by the presence and increasing debt of municipalities, which at the beginning of 2021 amounted to more than 27% of the total revenue of local budgets;
♦ under the current fiscal mechanism, the share of local taxes is negligible, more than 2/3 of municipal budgets are formed at the expense of personal income tax, provided inter-budget transfers cover the deficit of local budgets, but do not stimulate their development in any way; the financial situation of municipalities will not improve without re-fixing taxes in favor of local budgets.
|Сведения:||Nikolay Z. Zotikov - I.N. Ulyanov Chuvash State University, Cheboksary, Russia||18|
|Analysis of key threats to the economic security of the regions included in infrastructure projects for the development of the New Silk Road|
|Abstract. The country`s economic security is determined by the development level of its individual territories. Development projects of the New Silk Road actualize a problem of creating an effective system of the economic security for regions that are actively involved in the implementation of these initiatives. So, the purpose of the study is to develop an approach to the decomposition of risks and threats to the regional economic security as a key basis for creating a unified methodology for assessing and ensuring the economic security of subjects of Russia in the context of the development of New Silk Road initiatives.
Keywords: economic security of the region, threats and risks to economic security, New Silk Road
♦ an analysis of approaches to defining the concept of «economic security of a region» was carried out;
♦ the definition of "economic security of a region" was specified;
♦ a decomposition of factors and threats to regional economic security was carried out;
♦ the main directions for strengthening regional economic security have been formulated.
|Сведения:||Victoriia V. Kozhukhova - Samara State University of Economics, Samara, Russia||28|
|Polyanskova N.V., Belyaeva G.I.|
|Investment potential of the creative cluster as a strategic vector for the development of the tourism and hospitality industry in the region|
|Abstract. Today in the Russian Federation, special attention is paid to issues of a comprehensive study of possibilities for developing a competitive creative cluster in the tourist territory using its natural and cultural values. The Samara region has a significant natural, historical and cultural potential for the development of tourism. An active socio-economic policy is being implemented which makes it possible to increase the investment attractiveness of the region and effectively implement investment projects. The attraction of capital for the development of tourist infrastructure and the implementation of creative projects of the cluster is carried out mainly through private sources. In these circumstances, the creation of a creative cluster for the development of tourist activity in the region is designated the most perfect. The purpose of the study is to analyze the investment potential of the creative cluster in the context of the strategic development of the tourism sector of the region. The methods of system, economic-statistical, abstract-logical, comparative analysis, graphical and tabular analysis were used in the work. The results of the study are aimed at developing strategic directions for the development of a creative cluster in the Samara region.
Keywords: creative cluster, tourism and hospitality industry, development vector, region, investment potential, strategic directions, the Samara region
♦ the concept of a creative cluster, its role in the strategic development of the tourism and hospitality industry of the region are defined;
♦ problems and prospects of attracting investment for the development of creative clusters are identified on the example of the Samara region;
♦ an assessment of the investment potential of the creative cluster "Merchant Yekaterinovka" within the boundaries of the specially protected natural territory "Vasilievsky Islands" of the Bezenchuksky municipal district of the Samara region is given;
♦ strategic directions of investment activities for the development of a creative cluster in the region have been developed.
|Сведения:||Natalia V. Polyanskova - Samara State University of Economics, Samara, Russia, Galina I. Belyaeva - Samara State Technical University, Samara, Russia||37|
|ECONOMICS, ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATIONS, BRANCHES, COMPLEXES|
|Conditions for the formation of objective cost indicators of scientific and technical products of industrial enterprises|
|Abstract. The digital economy requires rethinking and refinement, and in many cases new conceptual approaches of activities of industrial enterprises focusing them on a significant increase in the efficiency of their productions and the use of means that support them. The article considers the scientific and technological progress of industrial enterprises as largely determining the solution of this problem. The possibilities of its rational inclusion in the processes of the digital economy, corresponding to modern conditions, are investigated. Due to the fact that one of the key factors of the digital economy is the need to work with accurate data as the most important, objectively reflecting the results of scientific and technological progress of enterprises, the indicators - economic efficiency and the price of the scientific and technical products created by them - are reasoned out. A conceptual system model reflecting methods of evaluation of scientific and technical products is proposed. The reasons complicating the achievement of the accuracy of its assessment are identified, measures are proposed to optimize conditions for organizing their formation in order to obtain data corresponding to the needs of the digital economy based on them and other qualitative characteristics demanded by it and using its results. The recommendations and proposals presented in the article are aimed at the qualitative and rational use of scientific and technological progress of industrial enterprises in order to ensure their effective functioning in the digital economy.
Keywords: digitalization of the economy, industrial enterprise, scientific and technological progress, cost indicators, efficiency, price, labor costs, regulatory framework, model
♦ the importance of scientific and technological progress as a factor determining the development of productive forces of enterprises and means of effective building of the digital economy is substantiated;
♦ a systematic conceptual methodological and methodological model of the organization of scientific and technical activities of industrial enterprises in relation to the cost indicators of its results has been developed;
♦ the necessity of creating a regulatory framework for determining labor costs, ensuring the receipt of accurate data in scientific and technical activities, including those necessary to determine indicators of economic efficiency and the price of scientific and technical products is shown.
|Сведения:||Natalia V. Odinochenkova - Bryansk State Technical University, Bryansk, Russia||46|
|Assessment of the resilience of secondary vocational and higher education|
|Abstract. The article explores theoretical and methodological approaches to the category of "resilience". The necessity of developing methodological tools for assessing the resilience of secondary vocational and higher education in the face of increasing influence of various exogenous and endogenous shocks has been established. On the basis of correlation and regression analysis, an assessment was made of data characterizing the state of secondary vocational and higher education in the Russian Federation, federal districts and the Republic of Bashkortostan. It is shown that the discrepancy between the level of qualifications of specialists in secondary vocational and higher education and the expectations of the market contributes to an increase in the unevenness of regional development. It has been established that an increase in the share of employees with higher and secondary vocational education in the Russian Federation by 1% leads to a decrease in unemployment by 0,55%. At the same time, the discrepancy between the structure of the output of specialists and their employment by 15% leads to an increase in unemployment in the Russian Federation by 1%. Based on the data of the Republic of Bashkortostan, methodological tools for assessing the resilience of secondary vocational and higher education have been developed and tested, taking into account the educational, personnel, material, technical and financial support of the analyzed system. Proposals have been formulated to increase the resilience of secondary vocational and higher education. The results obtained in the framework of the study are the initial groundwork for the formation of tools for assessing the resilience of the regional education system to economic shocks.
Keywords: resilience, sustainability, stability, adaptation, exogenous and endogenous shocks, secondary vocational education, higher education, contingency, institutions of development
♦ strengthening the influence of various exogenous and endogenous shocks requires studying the conditions for increasing the resilience of the education sector to negative manifestations of the environment;
♦ the discrepancy between the level of qualifications of specialists in secondary vocational and higher education and the expectations of the market contributes to an increase in the unevenness of regional development;
♦ personnel, educational, logistical and financial support are factors affecting the resilience of secondary vocational and higher education.
|Сведения:||Aliya U. Farkhutdinova - Ufa Federal Research Center of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, Russia||55|
|Charochkina E.Yu., Kryzhanovskaya OA.|
|Trends in digitalization of the entrepreneurial sector of the Russian economy|
|Abstract. One of the main trends in the development of society and the economy is digital transformation which has replaced informatization and computerization. In the aspect of the difficult socio-economic situation, the consequences of the pandemic crisis throughout the world community, the study of trends, problems and prospects for the digital transformation of the national economy and the business sector are of particular relevance. The article is devoted to the study of the impact of digital transformation processes on the formation and development of the entrepreneurial sector of the national economy. The research purpose is to study current trends in the digitalization of the entrepreneurial sector of the national economy. The objectives of the study are to analyze and assess the current situation of the level of digitalization of the entrepreneurial sector, to determine the possibilities and risks of digital business transformation, to identify directions for the further development of the processes of digitalization of industries in the current crisis. During the study, the authors used a general scientific methodology and approaches, the basis was methods of systemic analysis, generalization, economic and statistical methods. As a result of the study, the role of digital technologies in the development of the entrepreneurial sector at the current stage was determined. Based on the obtained results, it was established that in order to minimize risks and losses of the digital transformation of the entrepreneurial sector of the economy, it is necessary to develop and implement comprehensive measures of state support and management which will increase the level of technological development of all industries, including reducing the technological gap between them.
Keywords: business, business sector, transformation, digitalization, digital economy, digitalization index
♦ an assessment of the level and modern trends in the digital transformation of the entrepreneurial sector of the economy was given;
♦ the structure of digital transformation by priority industries was investigated;
♦ factors have been identified that allow building digital potential and factors that hinder the digitaliza-tion process;
♦ the solution can be the use of more optimal management models with the use of technological solutions in each subject area, taking into account the specifics of each sector of the economy.
|Сведения:||Ekaterina Yu. Charochkina, Olga A. Kryzhanovskaya - Southwestern State University, Kursk, Russia||65|
|FINANCE, MONETARY CIRCULATION AND CREDIT|
|Service of the state (municipal) debt in the structure of expenditures of the federal budget of the Russian Federation|
|Abstract. Due to the aggravation of the economic situation in Russia and in the world, our country has faced many difficulties in the socio-economic sphere. In the coming years, a reduction in federal budget revenues and a significant increase in its expenditures are predicted. At the same time, public debt servicing costs are rising. The purpose of this study is to consider the change in budget spending on public debt servicing, identify problems and propose ways to solve them. Analysis is the key research method. In the course of the study, ways were identified to increase revenues and reduce federal budget expenditures.
Keywords: budget, budget system, public debt, budget revenues, inflation, exchange rate, budget expenditures, federal budget
♦ the changes in the volume of public debt over the past years and forecast indicators for the near future are considered, the structure of public debt is studied;
♦ federal budget expenditures on servicing the public debt are analyzed, their significant increase is revealed;
♦ based on the results of the study, ways to solve the problematic situation in the public sector are proposed.
|Сведения:||Kristina A. Sharonova - Samara State University of Economics, Samara, Russia||72|
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