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Вестник самарского государственного экономического университета
Vestnik of Samara State University of Economics
2024 №4 (234)
Ecosystem of structural and technological development of the economy in the context of sanctions restrictions
Abstract. The article Investigates issues of theoretical justification for the development of an innovation ecosystem that ensures a digital structural shift in the context of the expansion of Industry 4.0 technologies on the one hand, and the strengthening of external sanctions restrictions for the Russian economy on the part of unfriendly countries, on the other. Approaches to justifying the need, determining the content and subjects of the ecosystem, and relations between them are considered. The main role of creating a favorable environment and conditions for the accelerated reproduction of human capital in the ecosystem of structural and technological development is highlighted, due to which the movement of the economy towards technological sovereignty and increase in the efficiency of production factors are initiated, which is necessary for resistance to external technological restrictions. The research methodology is based on approaches to the analysis of innovation ecosystems, problems of the formation of the digital economy and digital structural shift, and economic mechanisms of innovative development. The article pays special attention to the ecosystem of transition from Industry 4.0 to 5.0 - the human-oriented production of material and digital goods jointly by human and artificial intelligence, which represents the core of the coming structural shift.
Keywords: ecosystem, innovation, structural shift, technological sovereignty, sanctions, technological restrictions. Hightlightts: ♦ the approaches to the study of the problem of forming an ecosystem of structural and technological development, its subjects and the nature of the relations between them, which are in demand in the conditions of technological shocks for the Russian economy, caused, on the one hand, by external sanctions restrictions, on the other - by the global digital structural shift are analyzed; ♦ the key role of the ecosystem for the accelerated reproduction of human capital is determined - as the "core" of the structural and technological development of the Russian economy, the horizons of its development are shown in the context of the transition to cyber-physical systems, the combination of human and artificial intelligence in the real sector (Industry 5.0); ♦ elements of the ecosystem of structural and technological development are highlighted, including subjects and institutional support for the collective creation and investment of innovations in network platforms of crowdfunding, crowdlending, crowdinvesting, "smart" contracts, intra-company innovative entrepreneur-ship, etc.; ♦ the role of the ecosystem of structural and technological development in increasing the resilience of the economy to technological shocks and sanctions, associated with facilitating the realization of the value of innovation for all market participants, is revealed.
Email:economic@ael.ru, maq@tpu.ru, zhironkinsa@kuzstu.ru, vsz14@tpu.ru
Сведения:Eyvaz A. Gasanov - Pacific State University, Khabarovsk, Russia, Magеrram A. Gasanov - National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia, Sergey A. Zhironkin - T.F. Gorbachev Kuzbass State Technical University, Kemerovo, Russia, Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia, Vitaly S. Zhironkin - National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia
The genesis of development in economics
Abstract. The world economy in modern conditions is quite specific, based on intensive processes of internationalization and integration of production and circulation, international division of labor, and operates on the principles of a market economy. The organizational and economic phenomena and processes that occur due to the pursuit of the geopolitical interests of a number of states, objectively, do not contribute to the balanced development of the world economy. In this regard, the article considers the issue of the genesis of economic development, analyzes the points of view of representatives of various economic schools in chronological order, classifies theoretical approaches to the study of economic development. As a result of the conducted research, the definition of economic development is given.
Keywords: genesis, economic development, national economy, theoretical approaches. Highlights: ♦ analysis of theoretical approaches that determine factors of economic development of systems; ♦ identification of economic development trends in the context of global transformation of the world economy; ♦ economic development has a number of qualitative and quantitative measurement systems and can have both positive and negative effects on the national economy.
Email:zulinkot@mail.ru, sdemchenko@sfu-kras.ru, ysuslova@sfu-kras.ru, avvoloshin@sfu-kras.ru
Сведения:Maxim S. Zlotnikov - Institute of Management and International Business of the Siberian State University of Science and Technology named after Academician M.F. Reshetnev, Krasnoyarsk, Russia; Svetlana K. Demchenko, Yulia Yu. Suslova, Andrey V. Voloshin - Institute of Trade and Services of the Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Tax control as one of the factors of economic security of the state
Abstract. The urgent task of the state tax policy is to improve the system of indicators and mechanisms for assessing the effectiveness of tax control measures. The article considers different scientific approaches to assessing the effectiveness of tax control. The coefficients used to date to assess its indicators have been studied. Indicators of the intensity of tax audits were considered. The findings obtained from this study can help in the process of developing measures to increase the level of efficiency of tax control and to identify priority courses for the development of the tax system in the country.
Keywords: tax control, efficiency, office tax audit, field tax audit, economic security, tax revenues, taxes, taxpayers. Highlights: ♦ the current tax policy of Russia has a number of priorities, the main of which is the development of an existing and stable tax system, which would be able to guarantee the stability of the budget both in the long term and in the medium term; one of the ways to achieve these goals is to improve the quality of administration in the field of taxes; ♦ when there is a crisis in the country, it is especially important to find reserve sources of income for the state; measures on tax control will help to identify them - which means that it is necessary to constantly improve and assess its effectiveness, using different approaches for this purpose.
Сведения:Vadim N. Konovalov - Orenburg State University, Orenburg, Russia
Features of the formation of a competitive environment for the reclamation industry of the agro-industrial complex of the Russian Federation
Abstract. The results of a scientific and practical research are presented here, the purpose of which is to study and determine conditions for the formation of a competitive environment for the reclamation industry at the present stage of its development. Research methods include theoretical, logical method, system and situational analysis, generalization of research results. The results of the study consist in 1) systematization of the basic legal regulation of the development of competition in the reclamation industry of the agro-industrial complex of the Russian Federation, 2) development of a systematic mechanism for regulatory and legal support for the development of the competitive environment of the reclamation industry, 3) identification of areas of cooperation and improvement of the competitive environment of the EAEU member countries in the field of land reclamation. Practical significance: practical recommendations have been developed to improve the process of forming a competitive environment for the reclamation industry of the agro-industrial complex of the Russian Federation.
Keywords: competitive environment, government regulation, reclamation industry, agricultural products market, agricultural policy, reclaimed land. Hightlightts: ♦ the regulatory framework for regulating competitive relations of organizations in the reclamation industry of the agro-industrial complex of the Russian Federation is analyzed and the system of regulatory support for the development of the competitive environment of the reclamation industry of the agro-industrial complex of the Russian Federation is determined; ♦ the regulatory and legal foundations of the competitive environment of the reclamation industry of the Russian Federation at the level of interstate interaction within the framework of the integration system of the Eurasian Economic Union are revealed; ♦ directions of cooperation and improvement of the competitive environment of the member states of the Eurasian Economic Union have been formed; ♦ recommendations have been developed and proposed to improve the sectoral legal mechanism for regulating competitive relations in the reclamation industry of the Russian Federation.
Email:feminaa@mail.ru; zamakhovskii@mail.ru; cosidanie35@yandex.ru; zelen_go@mail.ru
Сведения:Alexandra A. Ugryumova - All-Russian Scientific Research Institute "Raduga", Kolomna, Russia, Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia; Mikhail Petrovich Zamakhovsky, Lyudmila E. Pautova, Olesya Yu. Grishaeva - All-Russian Scientific Research Institute "Raduga", Kolomna, Russia
Application of mathematical game theory for decision making under conditions of risk on the example of agriculture in mountain and foothill regions of the Republic of North Ossetia - Alania
Abstract. In modern economic conditions, modern technologies based on the use of mathematical tools are used to analyze and forecast various types of activities. This article investigates possibilities of using game theory for decision making under risk conditions. The purpose of the work is to develop a methodology for choosing the optimal strategy when making decisions at agricultural enterprises based on mathematical modeling and conducting a computational experiment. The work carried out a computational experiment to predict three variants of strategies using the example of an agricultural enterprise. According to three selection criteria (Bayesian, Laplace, Germeier), in order to obtain maximum income, the player is recommended to choose strategy A1 (carry out complex treatment of plants to prevent damage by weeds, pests and diseases). The work examined the initial data that led to the choice of one strategy. However, other agricultural enterprises can use their own initial data and systematized universal criteria, formulas, tables to conduct their own computational experiments and choose a strategy. Thus, to select a successful behavioral strategy from the standpoint of economic efficiency, the use of mathematical methods is appropriate. The assessment methods considered in the study make it possible to streamline ideas about possible threats for decision-making under risk conditions. The results obtained will allow us to formulate a preliminary decision-making algorithm with the best strategic potential.
Keywords: economics, agriculture, enterprise management, game theory, mathematical modeling, computational experiment, forecasting, decision making, risk. Hightlightts: ♦ in modern economic conditions, to manage the activities of an organization (enterprise), it is advisable to use digital technologies, especially based on mathematical models; ♦ carrying out computational experiments using current mathematical models allows one to obtain sufficiently reliable results for making management decisions; ♦ the quality of the initial data used when conducting computational experiments and forming recommendations is important for making effective management decisions.
Email:tsalan@yandex.ru; aida_d@rambler.ru; datieva_m@mail.ru; volikmv@mail.ru
Сведения:Alan Yu. Tsogoev - Gorsky State Agrarian University, Vladikavkaz, Russia; Aida R. Tsogoeva - Gorsky State Agrarian University, Vladikavkaz, Russia, Vladikavkaz Branch of the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Vladikavkaz, Russia; Madina Ch. Datieva - Gorsky State Agrarian University, Vladikavkaz, Russia; Mariya V. Volik - Vladikavkaz Branch of the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Vladikavkaz, Russia
Novelties in the Strategy of scientific and technological development of the Russian Federation
Abstract. The article highlights the main changes made to the Strategy of Scientific and Technological Development of the Russian Federation by Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 145 dated 02/28/2024. The article will be useful for graduate students, doctoral students, scientific supervisors and scientific consultants, developers of grant applications and other researchers for whom the relevance of ongoing and planned research and the possibility of their inclusion in state-funded scientific and technical programs is important. Familiarization with the article will also be useful to anyone who is interested in the prospects for the development of the scientific and technological complex of the country.
Keywords: strategy, scientific and technological development, big challenges, technological sovereignty, scientific and technical program. Highlights: ♦ within the framework of the Strategy of Scientific and Technological Development of the Russian Federation - 2024, almost all sections and essential provisions of the Strategy-2016 were changed; ♦ the significance of the changes is due to the entry of the scientific and technological sphere of the country into a new stage of development; ♦ an important task is a broad discussion of the text of the adopted Strategy by all members of the scientific community.
Сведения:Elena A. Kandrashina - Samara State University of Economics, Samara, Russia
Some aspects of logistics management in the development of wholesale enterprises in modern conditions
Abstract. Wholesale trade plays an important role in risk management in economic networks. Wholesalers can smooth out fluctuations in demand, absorbing part of the risk of non-compliance with demand and supply, which may occur due to the unpredictability of market conditions. They serve as a link that protects manufacturers from market volatility, providing them with a more predictable and stable sales channel. In a world where the boundaries of economic markets are redistributed every day, and digitalization steadily changes the rules of the game, the commercial activity of wholesale trade enterprises is on the verge of a new era. The relevance of this study is determined by the fact that this work not only reflects modern challenges and metamorphoses that the field of trade faces, but is also aimed at finding effective methods for transforming commercial and logistics processes. These transformations, stimulated by the accelerated development of technologies and shifts in international economic relations, have a deep effect on the structural aspects of wholesale trade covering all levels of its functioning. These changes require rethinking of traditional business models and stimulate the development of innovative approaches, such as using big data analytics, automation, digitalization, as well as the integration of artificial intelligence into the processes of logistics management of the organization. The aim of writing this scientific work is the theoretical and empirical analysis and the formation of an author`s vision of the prospects for the development of wholesale segment in the context of logistics management in the perspective of modern trends in digitalization of the economy and geopolitical challenges. The preparation of this study was carried out through the application of general scientific and empirical methods of economics based on a systemic interdisciplinary approach. The presented work has a certain theoretical and practical value, due to the formulation of the copyright vectors of the development of the wholesale segment of commodity circulation from the position of logistics tools.
Keywords: logistics, economics, wholesale, automation, digitalization, development. Hightlightts: ♦ on the basis of a comprehensive study of the fundamental features of the activities of wholesale enterprises, the position of the authors is justified in the work, according to which for such trading enterprises it is more advisable to focus on a clear installation, control and improvement of logistics business processes with traditional methods, before striving to complete automation of the logistics component in order to minimize future losses; ♦ the importance and timeliness of the study is determined by an analysis of the theoretical and embroidery aspects of sustainable development and the formation of scientific and practical recommendations for the logistics of commercial activities of wholesale enterprises; ♦ the authors concluded that the use of logistics management tools is a factor in increasing competitive advantages in the field of commodity circulation in the wholesale segment.
Сведения:Anna A. Polubotko, Sevak G. Khalatyan - Rostov State University of Economics, Rostov-on-Don, Russia
Features of profitability management by tourism industry organizations
Abstract. The article investigates specific features of profitability management by organizations in the tourism industry. At the present stage, the problem of building an improved profitability management mechanism is becoming urgent, which will make it possible to efficiently and rationally allocate free financial resources, plan your own activities and increase the stability of the organization in the face of constantly changing crisis phenomena. However, the instability of modern conditions for the functioning of hospitality organizations requires further investigation of a successful profitability management mechanism and a possible increase in the effectiveness of this indicator. The methodological basis of the study consists of comprehensive and complementary theoretical, empirical and practical research approaches.
Keywords: profitability management, profitability, tourism, tourism industry, development program. Hightlightts: ♦ the methodological basis for calculating the profitability indicators of organizations in the tourism industry includes determining the volume and structure of income and expenses, analyzing financial indicators, taking into account the peculiarities of the tourism business and comparing it with competitors; ♦ the calculation of profitability indicators is carried out in order to obtain reliable information about the financial condition and efficiency of organizations and make informed decisions for the development and improvement of profitability in the tourism industry; ♦ profitability management is an integral part of strategic management in the tourism industry, it is a process that requires analysis, planning, control and continuous improvement; ♦ effective profitability management allows travel industry organizations, taking into account the specifics of the industry, such as seasonality of demand and a high degree of competition, to achieve their financial goals and ensure long-term success.
Сведения:Elena P. Troshina, Elizaveta A. Nazarova - Samara State University of Economics, Samara, Russia
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