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Вестник самарского государственного экономического университета
Vestnik of Samara State University of Economics
2023 №3 (221)
Small business: development problems
Abstract. The relevance of the research topic is due to the need to fulfill tasks of the increasing role of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the country, provided for by the Strategy for the development of SMEs for the period up to 2030, in particular, to increase the share of the employed population in the SME sector in the total employed population up to 35%, the share of SMEs in GDP by 2 times (from 20 to 40% with an annual growth of 1% or more). The national project "Small and medium-sized businesses and support for individual entrepreneurial initiatives" provides for an increase by the end of 2024 in the number of people employed in the field of SMEs, including individual entrepreneurs, up to 25 million people, and the share of SMEs in GDP up to 32.5%. The subject of the study is the state of small and medium-sized businesses in the economy of the Russian Federation. The research purpose is to study the structure and development dynamics of SMEs in the Russian Federation in the context of federal districts, their share in local and regional budget revenues, the effectiveness of tax incentives, and to identify existing problematic issues in its development. Analysis, synthesis, generalization, grouping, dynamics, comparison, comparison, a tabular method are used in this work. According to the results of the study, the Russian Federation and the districts lag behind the achievement of the intended goals: the number of SME - legal entities in the Russian Federation and districts, the number of employees in them decrease with an increase in the number of individual entrepreneurs; the percentage of employees in SMEs in the total number of employees in the Russian Federation as of December 10, 2022 is 21.9%; more than one third of all SMEs and the number of employees in them are concentrated in the Central Federal District. The share of SMEs in GDP is declining (in 2020 it was 20.8%). Without the adoption of drastic measures at the micro level, in the context of regions, districts, the implementation of strategic tasks becomes problematic.
Keywords: small and medium-sized businesses, micro-enterprises, special tax regimes, simplified taxation system, budget revenues, tax revenues of local budgets, intergovernmental transfers, urban and rural settlements Highlights: ♦ small and medium-sized businesses are distributed extremely unevenly throughout the country; ♦ in the structure of SMEs - legal entities, micro-enterprises prevail; ♦ the number of SMEs - legal entities, the number of employees in them tend to decrease; ♦ the share of the tax on total income paid by small businesses in relation to the application of special tax regimes in the income of local and regional budgets is insignificant; ♦ the role of municipalities, especially rural settlements, in the tax regulation of the territorial development has been extremely underestimated.
Сведения:Nikolay Z. Zotikov - I.N. Ulyanov Chuvash State University, Cheboksary, Russia
Transition to a tourism innovative model: smart tourism
Abstract. For several years, tourism has undergone continuous growth. Its intense diversification makes it an increasingly globalized, competitive sector with a constant need for innovations. Innovations in the tourism sector are associated with the application of information and communication technologies (hereinafter referred to as ICT), which has changed the way the industry works. Smartphone, touch devices, cellular and the Internet of Things (hereinafter referred to as IoT) are the latest technologies that provide location-based services. The purpose of this article is to provide insight into the current understanding of what smart tourism is. A smart city is becoming a city that uses the power of technology to optimize the sustainability and improve people`s lives. The authors consider six areas of smart tourism: smart tourists, smart residents, smart mobility, smart governance, smart economy and smart sustainability.
Keywords: smart tourism, consumers, applications, components of smart tourism, technologies Highlights: ♦ the components of "smart" tourist destinations and levels of intelligent technologies are considered; ♦ 6 areas of "smart" tourism have been identified: "smart" tourists, "smart" residents, "smart" mobility, "smart" management, "smart" economy and "smart" sustainability; ♦ the changing paradigm of "smart" tourism is shown; ♦ examples of applications of "smart" tourist destinations are given (Smart Tourism Taiwan, Amsterdam ArenA, Sunmoon Lake, AudioNear, Mekomi, Alternative, Tellavista, Casa Versa, MyleFlyTM, Tel Aviv Municipality).
Email:anastastyast@yandex.ru; alexsarafanov@mail.ru
Сведения:Anastasya G. Sarafanova, Alexander A. Sarafanov - Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Sources of formation of an innovative development strategy for industrial enterprises in the conditions of uncertainty
Abstract. The paper investigates features of the formation of an innovation strategy implemented by industrial enterprises in the modern economic environment, complicated by various global challenges and threats in politics and economics. In order to significantly enhance the effectiveness of the innovation activity, the essence of the macro- and micro-changes that are taking place is considered, which makes it possible to systematize them by dividing into internal and external components. The latter should include transformation processes in the global markets, the internal ones - the conditions prevailing in the domestic market with regard to the support of productive forces. Innovation planning should be linked to the results of their manifestation for the strategic period, and appropriate alternative strategies should be developed. The research used methods of synthesis, econometric analysis, meaningful interpretation of financial and economic activities in the field of innovation management of production systems. The purpose of this study is to identify important sources of formation of an innovative development strategy that is necessary to ensure increased efficiency of enterprises of modern domestic engineering, in the context of the revision of traditional paradigms of the market industrial policy, ensuring the technological sovereignty and wide import substitution. Identification of priorities, improvement of research methods will make it possible to develop an innovative strategy of the enterprise more reasonably, to determine the most promising directions of its formation and implementation in the modern conditions of uncertainty. The scientific novelty lies in the substantiation of new methodological approaches, the study of key factor conditions, tools and organizational and methodological approaches for the development of innovative strategies of industrial enterprises that create fixed assets for other industries. As a result, the main directions of improving the work on the formation of innovative strategies of industrial enterprises are determined, they include generalizing and providing tools, identifying priorities, organizational and methodological support for scaling the results of innovative activities.
Keywords: innovation strategy, uncertainty, investment, industrial enterprise, environmental conditions, factors, methods Highlights: ♦ currently, the innovative activity is at the heart of the development strategy of an enterprise as a whole, allows it to ensure its competitiveness and at the same time significantly accelerate the growth rate of the country`s economy, transfer it to an intensive development regime, ensure the technological sovereignty; ♦ given the sufficient length of time required for the practical implementation of innovations and investment projects in the industry, it is necessary to take into account their risky nature, an innovation lag, and the ambiguous degree of their success, which forces the development of appropriate alternative innovation strategies; ♦ to improve the work on the formation of innovative strategies of industrial enterprises, it is necessary to consider generalizing and supporting tools, identify priorities for the import substitution and increasing exports of high-tech products, conduct the organizational and methodological support for the implementation of innovative projects of a machine-building enterprise to reduce risks and scale new technical solutions.
Email:a.strelzov@inbox.ru; dmms7@rambler.ru
Сведения:Alexey V. Streltsov, Gennady I. Yakovlev - Samara State University of Economics, Samara
Cross-promotion of a regional university as a factor of increasing the customer orientation
Abstract. Despite the scale of the use of communication tools, the modern approach to the promotion of universities and, as a result, educational services, nevertheless, does not provide high efficiency in attracting new applicants and forming a stable position of universities among competitors. The complex of promotion of the Rostov State University of Economics is considered, where priorities in the choice of tools are determined. A study of applicants during the admission committee (with the participation of the authors of this article) was conducted in order to determine the information coverage. The Internet resources of competitors of the considered university were monitored in order to verify the promotion and develop a new format - the cross-promotion. The authors formed cross-promotion principles of the university in the new development conditions of the higher education market in the region, which is a sequence of decisions aimed at a prolonged result of attracting new applicants, to a new level of cooperation with other participants in the field of higher education, as well as the labor market and the economy of the region. The final stage of the study was the cross-promotion model tested during the admission campaign 2022, which found positive feedback from applicants and their parents, as well as from university representatives and external experts.
Keywords: regional university, information and communication tools, the model of cross-promotion of the university, the factor of increasing the customer orientation Highlights: ♦ the formation of a modernized complex of promotion of the analyzed university should be based on the integration of internal and external tools, from information and communication technologies to the comparison of needs of all participants in the educational process in a specific period of the academic year; ♦ accumulation of all communication resources of a regional university should be carried out regularly, planned and in advance in order to provide the university with promotion resources at the request of target audiences; ♦ the formation of principles of the cross-promotion of the university, taking into account the current changes in market conditions, including in the field of higher education, the labor market and the economy of the region, is a systematic and modeled process consisting of information and communication tools to attract applicants by including related tools and methods in the promotion with an emphasis on in-depth cooperation with representatives of the external environment who are not co-subjects of the university during the admission campaign.
Email:narinehachaturyan@mail.ru; anastasia.churyumova@yandex.com; garincho999@yandex.ru
Сведения:Narine R. Khachaturian, Anastasia A. Churyumova, Garnik V. Martirosyan - Rostov State University of Economics (RINH), Rostov-on-Don, Russia
Statement of the problem of managing the incentive system for the teaching staff of the university using a genetic algorithm
Abstract. The relevance lies in the fact that in relation to modern trends, universities are faced with the need to optimize their costs and improve the remuneration system for the teaching staff. Thus, the problem posed can be formulated as a need to develop a model of the incentive system for the teaching staff of the university. In view of the above problem, the purpose of this work is to formulate a control problem in relation to the incentive system for the teaching staff of the university based on the construction of a genetic algorithm. The applied research methods are evolutionary modeling, genetic algorithm. The model proposed in the study was described in the terminology of evolutionary modeling. So, in its formalized form, the model of the incentive system of the teaching staff of the university consists of three points, the first of which shows the initial population, which reflects a set of alternative options for the distribution of incentive payments, allowances, bonuses among the university staff from among the teaching staff. In the second paragraph of the proposed model, it is indicated that the university monitoring system selects chromosomes (variants for the distribution of incentive payments, allowances, bonuses) that meet the criteria of the objective function and, on their basis, a new population is formed and a genetic algorithm is given directly. The third paragraph states that after the formation of a new population, information about it is transmitted to the external environment, which includes monitoring by the Ministry of Education and Science and the Treasury, which, after processing the information received, forms target indicators of the university for the next reporting period and thereby launching a new cycle of the genetic algorithm. In the second section of the article, the objective function is formulated and formalized, followed by the construction of an optimal control problem on its basis. As a conclusion, we can say that the model presented in the study can serve as a basis for a computer program in the future.
Keywords: university teaching staff incentive system, evolutionary modeling, genetic algorithm Highlights: ♦ the system of remuneration of the teaching staff of the university is described on the basis of the terminology of evolutionary modeling; ♦ the genetic algorithm of the work of the system of remuneration of the teaching staff of the university is given; ♦ based on the genetic algorithm, an objective function is derived and a control problem is posed.
Сведения:Pavel A. Nikulin - Bryansk State Technical University, Bryansk, Russia
A complex approach to financing capital expenditures at medical organizations
Abstract. Capital investment decisions in healthcare organizations play a key role in the development of existing treatment options and the emergence of new technologies. Although capital investments require significant upfront costs, they can result in cost savings over the long term. Investments in technology and equipment can increase the efficiency by rapidly decreasing time of patients` examination and the accuracy of diagnostics, resulting in a reduction of costs and lost capacity. The modern evaluation of capital investment projects is not a single process among various organizations and even within an organization. The goal set by the author is to provide a universal complex method for assessing capital investments in a medical organization, which can be quickly identified in the same format. The project proposed by the author analyzes not only financial factors, but also forecasts and expectations of stakeholders, operational and medical factors.
Keywords: financing, capital investments, investments, healthcare, medical organization, NPV, stakeholders, medical management Highlights: ♦ the author presents an integrated approach to managing the process of preparing a capital investment project; proposed a classification of projects; ♦ as a result of the study, a methodology for classifying a project based on variable factors using a system of indicators is presented; ♦ r recommendations are provided on the implementation of the methodology in a medical organization in its current form or with the modernization by the user.
Сведения:Timur M. Fakhrutdinov - Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Yekaterinburg, Russia
Topical issues of ensuring the environmental safety of the country through the tools of return logistics
Abstract. The environment, a necessary habitat for all living beings in nature, has become one of the important issues on the agenda since the 1970s and has been discussed in the context of security, especially in combination with globalization, which quickly felt its impact after the Cold War. The rapid growth of the world`s population, in parallel with the increase in the consumption growth, causes a rapid reduction in available resources. The relevance of the presented work is obvious, because there is an objective threat to the future of humanity caused by the fact that the main resources for high-quality human life are quite limited and subject to exhaustion. The rapid development of cities, industries and the scientific and technological progress over the past decade has created prerequisites for the emergence of various environmental threats. The growth of consumption and industrial production has led to a significant burden on the environment in terms of increased production waste generation. The target orientation in this study is based on the analysis of theoretical aspects and some empirical factors and prospects for the development of a system of implementation of return logistics to ensure the environmental safety of regions and the country as a whole. The factography of the study is based on the reporting data of analytical agencies presented in the public domain. The research methods include general scientific and empirical methods of economics based on systematic and interdisciplinary approaches. As a result an effective system of return logistics and recycling was presented in the conditions of the resource exhaustion and the relevance of environmental conservation.
Keywords: logistics, return flows, system, ecology, safety, development, industry, region, economy, environment Highlights: ♦ the paper substantiates the authors` position in relation to the growth of consumption in our society, and, accordingly, the formation of industrial and household waste, with limited resources, the expediency of developing comprehensive measures to implement possibilities of using a waste recycling system based on logistics management of return flows is actualized; ♦ the relevance of the study is due to the analysis of theoretical and empirical aspects of sustainable environmental security in the country and regions and the development of scientific and practical recommendations for the logistics of the return flow system in the circular economy; ♦ the authors conclude that in the country`s environmental safety management system, a significant role is played by the state policy and the direct support for the development of clusterization in this area through the implementation of the concept of return logistics, including on the basis of public-private partnership.
Сведения:Sevak G. Khalatyan, Olesya N. Boyko - Rostov State University of Economics, Rostov-on-Don, Russia
Digital reorientation of the management system of the food industry
Abstract. The article investigates theoretical foundations of the digital reorientation of the management of food industry enterprises, and also notes a need to make the transition to the concept of digital management. The influence of digitalization on the process of functioning and management of the food industry is analyzed. The advantages of digital reorientation of management of food industry enterprises, which is currently the most relevant direction for further growth and development of the food industry, are studied. The influence of sanction restrictions on the process of digitalization of the management system of food industry enterprises is noted, and conclusions on further directions of the implementation of the process of digital reorientation are formulated.
Keywords: digital reorientation, food industry, digitalization, enterprise management system, enterprise management, digitalization tools, advantages of digital management Highlights: ♦ the food industry, ensuring the food security of the national economy, needs the most relevant and modern methods and management systems; ♦ digital reorientation of the enterprise management is one of the most promising areas for improving the management system of the food industry; ♦ the active use of digital technologies in the process of food production has reached a good level at most enterprises, however, the technological level of innovations and the management process is still quite low, which is one of the most acute problems of the industry; ♦ the process of implementing the digital reorientation of the management system of food industry enterprises has a number of significant advantages that allow to raise the efficiency level of the functioning of enterprises producing food; ♦ the sanctions imposed on Russia have had an important impact on the process of digitalization of the enterprise management system, but in the end, the restrictions imposed provide an excellent opportunity to conduct their own research and implement domestic developments.
Email:lena_scher@mail.ru; frolovak99@list.ru
Сведения:Elena N. Sheremetyeva, Anna K. Frolova - Samara State University of Economics, Samara, Russia
Government bond borrowings in the context of external shocks
Abstract. The development of such an important segment of the financial market, as a consequence of bond borrowings, ensuring the process of balancing state monetary funds, the operation of the refinancing system of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, the investment attractiveness of lower industries and the economy as a whole, is one of the key tasks facing the economy. Therefore, studying the consequences of ongoing shocks on the value volumes of the government bond market is a pressing issue that requires close attention in the contemporary turbulent economic conditions. The article reveals the economic nature of external shocks, and also uses event analysis to measure their impact on the government borrowing market. Particular attention is paid to the issue of shock events superimposing on each other, which, depending on the direction of their impact, can lead either to a sharp drop in the volume of the government bond market, or, conversely, to its balanced dynamics.
Keywords: consequences of domestic borrowing, consequences of bonds, external shocks, sanctions pressure, energy prices, profitability, inverse curve Highlights: ♦ external shocks are circular, there is a close relationship between shocks; ♦ external shock events lead to a structural restructuring of the economy exposed to its impact; the shock affects both the financial and real production spheres of the economic system, including the government borrowing market; ♦ an external shock has a significant impact on debt volume, yield, inversion, yield curve, and slowdown structure.
Email:manyaeva58@mail.ru; pisakina83@yandex.ru
Сведения:Vera A. Manyaeva, Olga Yu. Kuzmina - Samara State University of Economics, Samara, Russia
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