|Вестник самарского государственного экономического университета
Vestnik of Samara State University of Economics
|2021 №1 (195)
|INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF STATE SUPPORT FOR THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY|
|The governments of different countries (the USA, Germany, Japan, China, Russia, etc.), regardless of the principles of economy state regulation that have been formed in them, provide support to the automotive industry enterprises, which is due to the high importance of the industry in creating jobs and the multiplicative effect that is manifested in the growth of production in related industries. The article presents the results of the analysis of the world and Russian practice of using various measures of state support for enterprises.
Keywords: state support, budget, subsidies, automobile industry.
♦ there are differences in the mechanisms of anti-crisis support for the industry, which was carried out in 2008-2010 in a number of European countries, in the United States and in Russia, including by providing subsidies to buyers of new cars or by buying back shares of companies (the United States and Russia);
♦ the common for most countries problems of providing tax benefits for buyers of electric vehicles, which are received by more wealthy categories of citizens, are analyzed;
♦ disproportions in the dynamics of production of conventional and environmentally friendly cars, which affect the pace of industrial production (China) or the demand for traditional fuel (Germany);
♦ it is proved that the experience of developed countries should be considered when developing state support for the automotive industry in Russia.
|Сведения:||Tatyana V. Tishchenko, Candidate of Economics, Senior Research Officer at the RANEPA Laboratory for Budget Policy Studies, Moscow.||9|
|ECONOMICS, ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATIONS, BRANCHES, COMPLEXES|
|ORGANIZATIONAL-ECONOMIC MECHANISM FOR SMALL BUSINESSES DEVELOPMENT DURING PANDEMIC AND ECONOMY DIGITALIZATION|
|In order to develop an organizational and economic mechanism for the development of small businesses in the context of the coronavirus pandemic and the digitalization of the economy, an analysis of the problems of the development of small businesses in Russia was carried out on the basis of a study by the NAFI 2020 Analytical Center. Measures of state support of business in the conditions of digitalization of the economy in the Republic of Bashkortostan are considered. A set of measures and tools for the development and support of small business in the conditions of global challenges is proposed.
Keywords: small enterprises, digitalization, pandemic, development problems, business support. Highlights:
♦ the analysis of small business development in conditions of the economy digitalization and the coronavirus pandemic is based on the research of the NAFI Analytical Center;
♦ the measures of state support of business in the conditions of digitalization of the economy in the Republic of Bashkortostan are considered, their advantages and disadvantages are revealed;
♦ the need for state support of small enterprises, in stimulating investments and innovations in digital business in the Republic of Bashkortostan is determined;
♦ A set of measures to support small businesses in the conditions of the pandemic and the digitalization of the economy, including tools for business development, is suggested.
|Сведения:||Natalia V. Altufeva, Junior Research Officer at the Economic Security Sector of the Institute for SocioEconomic Studies of the Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences.||18|
|IMPROVEMENT OF ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY OF THE GRAPHITE AND APATITE DEPOSITS AVAILABILITY IN THE AREAS OF NEW DEVELOPMENT|
|The relevance of improving the methodology of economic assessment of the availability of deposits reserves is due to the need to use the expert-analytical method in the calculations, which is based on the data of geological mapping and forecast studies, the geography of the location of mineral deposits and the economic characteristics of the forecast resources of the territory and reserves of deposits. The object of the study is the mineral resource base of reserves and forecast resources of graphite and apatite deposits on the territory of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). The subject of the study is the improvement of the methodology of economic assessment of the cost of geological exploration works. The purpose of this study is to improve the methodological support of geoinfor-mation modeling of the availability of deposits reserves for the subsequent transfer of the forecast potential of minerals to the proven reserves for deposits in the areas of new development of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). To achieve this goal, it was necessary to solve the following tasks: to determine the methodological justification of geological and economic zoning; to form the principles of geological and economic modeling. The scientific novelty of the study is that the author improved the methodology for economic assessment of the availability of graphite and apatite deposits in the areas of new development. The practical significance lies in the possibility of using the results of the study to assess the mineral resource potential of field reserves and forecast resources in the areas of new development.
Keywords: geoinformation modeling, cost estimation of inputs, geological and economic monitoring, industrial and raw materials group, geological and economic area, mineral and raw materials unit.
♦ when forming a methodology for the economic assessment of the availability of reserves of deposits, it is necessary to proceed from the structure of a standard request for providing information about a subsurface area. One of the main principles in the formation of the methodology is the stage-by-stage conduct of geological prospecting work;
♦ improvement of the methodology for economic assessment of the availability of graphite and apatite deposits in the areas of new development consists in the introduction of the following geological and economic indicators into the methodology for calculating reserves: the geo-economic potential of explored reserves; the geo-economic potential of geological reserves; the geo-eco-nomic potential of forecast resources, the calculation of which takes into account the features of the geological structure and heterogeneity of deposits in the areas of new development, as well as the insufficient infrastructure availability of these fields;
♦ the database of geological and economic indicators accumulated over a certain period within the framework of the State Cadastre of Deposits will automatically prepare data and generate reports at the request of federal and other authorities and organizations on the state of the mineral resource base and subsurface use at the state level in order to increase the investment attractiveness of subsurface use facilities.
|Сведения:||Valery S. Dadykin, Doctor of Economics, Professor of the Bryansk State Technical University.||25|
|ESTIMATION OF PARAMETERS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH AUTOREGRESSIVE MODELS|
|The construction of time series models based on statistical data is one of the central tasks of modern econometric studies. Numerous economic models based on differential equations are used to explain the patterns of economic growth. The article is devoted to the estimation of parameters of economic growth models based on solutions of homogeneous differential equations with constant coefficients. A comparative analysis of methods for estimating the parameters of autoregression of economic dynamics series with additive interference in the output signal is carried out. The simulation results showed that the full least squares method gives the most accurate estimates. The most commonly used least squares method gives the worst estimates.
Keywords: economic growth, autoregression, parametric identification, least squares method, instrumental variables, Yule-Walker equations, trend, seasonality.
♦ it is proposed to use autoregression models with an additive stochastic component in the output signal to estimate the parameters of economic growth;
♦ methods for estimating autoregression parameters with an additive stochastic component in the output signal are modeled;
♦ It is shown that the application of the full least squares method gives the most accurate estimates of the parameters of economic growth models.
|Сведения:||Dmitry V. Ivanov, Candidate of Physics and Mathematics, Associate Professor of Samara State University of Economics.||33|
|Kochetkov E.P., Zabavina A.A.|
|DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION OF COMPANIES: ESSENCE AND EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT ON EFFICIENCY|
|In the context of the fourth industrial revolution and the development of digital technologies, their implementation in all areas of the economy has become a necessity. Currently, digital transformation as a set of measures to modernize the company`s internal processes is becoming a key element on a highly competitive market and it is one of the few ways to survive. The current economic crisis caused by the coronavirus pandemic has sharply demonstrated the need for digital transformation of business. In this regard, the problem of successful digital transformation has become a key issue for almost all companies in various sectors of the economy. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of the digital transformation process of the business on its effectiveness. The theoretical analysis of the digital transformation process was used as a methodological basis. On the basis of statistical data and digital strategies of companies, an analysis of the reasons for the success and failure of such strategies implementation, as well as a correlation analysis of the main indicators of the company`s performance and the process of its digitalization, is carried out. In the course of the study, the essence of the concept of company digital transformation is established, the key features of this process are identified and generalized, the main prerequisites for digital changes and their results are determined by the example of large multinational corporations - representatives of various sectors of the economy.
Keywords: digital transformation, digital strategy, business model, digital technologies, business efficiency, profitability.
♦ digital transformation is considered as a complex of internal transformations of the company, which involves changing the business model based on modern digital technologies, in order to increase customer satisfaction, gain competitive advantages and increase production efficiency;
♦ the need for digital transformation is caused by both internal factors (difficult financial situation) and external factors (increased competition on the market), and its successful implementation depends on the company`s readiness for transformation, which is expressed, for example, in proper planning, understanding of the specifics of the company`s activities by management;
♦ the conducted correlation analysis revealed a weak relation between the processes of digital transformation and the main financial and economic indicators of companies (revenue, market capitalization and profit), which may indicate that the digital transformation process does not affect business performance in the short term due to the time lag and the influence of side factors.
|Сведения:||Evgeny P. Kochetkov, Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor of the Department of Business Management of the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Head of the organizational and analytical direction of the Project Office for the implementation of the national program "Digital Economy of the Russian Federation" of the Analytical Center under the Government of the Russian Federation; Anna A. Zabavina, Project Coordinator of the Project Office for the implementation of the national program "Digital Economy of the Russian Federation" of the Analytical Center under the Government of the Russian Federation, Master of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia.||38|
|Makarov S.I., Boldyrev M.A.|
|RESEARCH OF RESIDENTS INTERRELATIONS OF THE SAMARA REGION CONSTRUCTION CLUSTER|
|The article is devoted to the study of the interaction of the construction cluster participants, which determines the dynamics of the volumes and paces of construction in the region. The main subjects of this process are construction organizations and manufacturers of building materials. The main requirements of regional construction companies to suppliers of building materials are defined. The factors are revealed reflecting the dependence of the results of the construction companies` activities on the production and economic activities of the companies producing construction materials. Based on the available observations for 7 years, a statistical analysis of the samples was carried out and regression models of dynamics were constructed, the significance and adequacy of the obtained models were checked. The constructed mathematical models reflect the dependence of the volume of performed work in construction from the production indicators of manufacturers of building materials and supply organizations. The conducted research allows us to conclude that the most significant negative factors affecting the volume of work performed are the dynamics of prices for finished metal products and the dynamics of prices for the transmission and distribution of electricity.
Keywords: construction cluster, statistical analysis, mathematical modeling. Highlights:
♦ significant criteria for the selection of construction materials suppliers by developers have been identified;
♦ the statistical analysis of industrial and economic relations of developers with suppliers of construction materials is carried out;
♦ the factors limiting the abilities of building materials manufacturers to meet the full range of needs of construction organizations at competitive prices are analyzed;
♦ regression models of the dependence of the production indicators of organizations-developers on the production volumes and pricing policy of manufacturers of building materials are obtained.
|Сведения:||Sergey I. Makarov, Doctor of Pedagogy, Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Higher Mathematics and Economic and Mathematical Methods of the Samara State University of Economics; Boldyrev Maxim Andreevich, Candidate of Economic Sciences, Senior Lecturer of the Department of Economics and Cadastre of the Samara University of Public Administration "International Market Institute".||52|
|CO-CONSUMPTION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC|
|The coronacrisis that hit the world economy affected the entire spectrum of economic activity, including those related to the implementation of sharing relations. As an important part of the latter, joint consumption is forced to change structurally, organizationally, and technologically in order to maintain the same growth dynamics in the new conditions. The purpose of this study was to reveal the content of the transformation of shared consumption under the influence of the coronavirus pandemic and its consequences. The research methodology is formed on the basis of generalization and systematization of conceptual approaches to the study of sharing relations in modern economic activity. The main result of the analysis of the consequences for shared consumption from the coronacrisis in the economy was the identification of the emerging threats and opportunities. In the context of the need to reflect the first and use the second, the ways of adapting existing practices of joint consumption to the conditions of the coronavirus pandemic are summarized.
Keywords: shared consumption, coronavirus pandemic, digitalization, sharing relationships, online platforms, social distancing.
♦ the ambiguity of the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on joint consumption is revealed;
♦ the changes in the practices of joint consumption caused by the coronacrisis are established;
♦ methods of adaptation of joint consumption to the conditions of the coronavirus pandemic are suggested.
|Сведения:||Vyacheslav A. Perepelkin, Doctor of Economics, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of World Economy of Samara State University of Economics.||59|
|TRANSITION FROM DREAMERS-ENTREPRENEURS TO ACTIVE ENTREPRENEURS: GENDER DIFFERENCES IN NATIONAL ECONOMIES|
|The article is devoted to the actual problem of the existing differences in the early entrepreneurial activity of women and men. The aim of the study is to assess the current levels of interest and participation of women and men in early entrepreneurship in modern national economies. The study solved the problems of determining the values of indicators that characterize the intentions of people to create their own new businesses, their involvement in this activity, as well as the ownership of newly created enterprises. The study used the results of surveys conducted in 59 countries during the implementation of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitoring Project as the initial information. The study examined the assessment of 9 indicators that characterize the early entrepreneurship of women and men, as well as the corresponding gender differences. Functions were obtained that demonstrate the distribution of indicators in 59 countries, describing the proportion of women and men, who have intentions to create their own businesses, and are involved in these processes, and are beginners in entrepreneurship. In addition, an assessment of gender differences in 3 stages of early entrepreneurship was carried out. The results showed that in most countries there is a gender gap between the indicators of early entrepreneurial activity, women participate in such activity to a lesser extent compared to men. The author`s assessment of the values of indicators for Russia and foreign countries showed that in our country, both women and men are less interested in an entrepreneurial career than representatives of other countries. The results obtained are new and original, and have theoretical and practical significance for governments and entrepreneurs. The methodological approach presented in the article to the assessment of gender differences in early entrepreneurship can be applied in further studies. The new knowledge gained is of interest and can be used in the educational process at universities.
Keywords: intentions of creating your own business, early entrepreneurship, entrepreneurs-beginners, involvement in entrepreneurial activity, women, men, gender differences, normal distribution functions.
♦ a methodological approach to the assessment of 9 indicators of adult entrepreneurship in different countries is presented;
♦ the functions that characterize the existing distributions of the values of the indicators of early entrepreneurship of women and men in 59 modern national economies are presented;
♦ the average values of 9 indicators for the countries under consideration are presented;
♦ a comparative analysis of the levels of gender differences in different countries was carried out.
|Сведения:||Yulia S. Pinkovetskaya, Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor of the Department of Economic Analysis and Public Administration of Ulyanovsk State University.||66|
|ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITY OF REGIONAL AIRPORTS OF FRANCE AND REGIONAL AIRPORTS OF THE CENTRAL FEDERAL DISTRICT: DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST AIRLINES DESTINATIONS AS A KEY FACTOR IN THE PASSENGER TRAFFIC GROWTH|
|The article presents an analysis of the activities of regional airports in France in 2019. The growth of passenger traffic was observed in those airports that actively developed cooperation with budget airlines, increasing the number of destinations in the route network. Regional airports in France, whose route network structure did not expand in 2019, showed a slight decrease in passenger traffic (from
-0.1% to -3%). The first and only experimental regional airport in France (city of Beziers), handling flights of only one budget airline, Ryanair, showed an increase in passenger traffic by 14.5% in 2019. The share of routes of budget airlines in the structure of the route network of regional airports in France is quite high. The key problems of regional airports in Russia are the low passenger traffic and the underdeveloped route network. Due to the presence of the only national budget airline "Pobeda" on the market and the minimal impact on the segment of budget air transportation of foreign airlines, the share of budget air transportation destinations in the structure of regional airports of the Russian Federation continues to remain at an extremely low level. 2019 showed a record growth in passenger traffic at regional airports in the Central Federal District (an increase from +2.8% to +262%, with the exception of Tambov Airport, whose passenger traffic fell by 57.4%), which indicates an increase in demand and the need to expand the route network of regional airports. On the example of the Voronezh airport, a model for the development of low-cost airline destinations is presented.
Keywords: regional airports, French airports, Central Federal District airports, regional airlines, budget airlines.
♦ the growth of passenger traffic at regional airports in France is due to the development of new destinations for budget airlines in the structure of the airpor`s route network;
♦ airports in France, whose route network structure did not expand in 2019, showed a slight decrease in passenger traffic (from -0.1% to -3%);
♦ regional airports of the Central Federal District have extremely low passenger traffic, due to the underdevelopment of the route network and the low influence of budget airlines on the structure of the airport`s route network;
♦ the increase in passenger traffic at Kaluga Airport by 262% is due to the expansion of cooperation with the regional airline Azimut and an increase in the number of subsidized flights;
♦ the expansion of the route network of regional airports by increasing the number of destinations of budget airlines can serve as a basis for increasing passenger traffic in the context of macroe-conomic instability.
|Сведения:||Vladimir V. Rublev, Post-graduate student, the Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow.||75|
|PHASE CONSTRAINTS IN MATERIAL MEANS SEPARATION MODELS IN MICROECONOMICS|
|Chernyaev A.P., Sukhorukova I.V., Fomin G.P., Meerson A.Yu.|
|One of the important and urgent tasks of microeconomics is the problems of research of the economic system, in which there are restrictions associated with the planned volume of output or the size of the enterprise production capacity. These constraints are set by the requirement that the analyzed trajectories do not leave some given region of the control existence space. Most often, such restrictions for all time points are set in the form of inequalities, and certain requirements are imposed on the function of the phase coordinates of the object, their value at a given time. This problem is classified as an optimal control problem with mixed and phase constraints. In general, this area is of scientific interest and requires consideration. In this case, we study the microeconomic model of the household economy as the most stable object in the conditions of crises. The accumulated savings are subject to a natural phase constraint of non-negativity. This led to the study of the features of the microeconomic formulation of the problem of finding a method for the optimal division of material resources into consumed and accumulated parts, since the imposition of a natural phase restriction on the non-negativity of accumulated savings makes everything much more complicated. Just as in macroeconomics, consumption is optimized, but not in its pure form, but the integral discounted utility of consumption is maximized. The relation equation in this paper differs from a similar macroeconomic equation, since the household exists and survives in crisis conditions in a different way than do social organisms and large enterprises. That is why the article formulates and proves sufficient conditions for solving the problem with a phase constraint.
Keywords: optimal consumption, accumulated savings, phase limitation, indicator function.
♦ the important problem of optimal division of material resources into consumed and accumulated parts in microeconomics is formulated and solved;
♦ an algorithm for constructing optimal control of a microeconomic system is proposed.
|Email:||firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com|
|Сведения:||Alexander P. Chernyaev, Doctor of Physics and Mathematics, Professor of the Department of Higher Mathematics of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University); Irina V. Sukhorukova, Doctor of Economics, Professor of the Department of Higher Mathematics of the Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow; Gennady P. Fomin, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Mathematical Methods in Economics of the Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow; Alla Yu. Meerson, Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Mathematical Methods in Economics of the Russian State University of Economics, Moscow.||88|
|FINANCE, MONETARY CIRCULATION AND CREDIT|
|Bunevich K.G., Gorbacheva T.A., Brodunov A.N.|
|COMPETITIVE DEVALUATION AS AN ELEMENT OF RUSSIA`S MODERN MONETARY POLICY|
|The purpose of this article is to analyze the current system of exchange rate formation in Russia, to identify its main features. The dynamics of the exchange rate is of particular importance for Russian economy, which is among the so-called export-and resource-oriented. In such economies, the exchange rate is significantly dependent on the conditions of foreign markets, since the receipt of foreign exchange earnings from exports is the most important fundamental factor in the supply of foreign currency on the domestic market. On the other hand, the exchange rate itself is a factor in the external price competitiveness of Russian exports. The statistical databases of the Federal State Statistics Service and the Bank of Russia, as well as the statistical data of the International Monetary Fund group, the World Bank and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, served as the information base for this study. The paper used critical and comparative analysis, a systematic approach to the study of information, retrospective, statistical and graphical methods, on the basis of which the prerequisites were investigated and the features of the current monetary policy and some of its individual elements were identified.
Keywords: exchange rate, currency interventions, competitive devaluation, budget rule, currency sterilization, balance of payments.
♦ the features of the formation of the exchange rate in the conditions of a resource-oriented economy, in particular the Russian economy, are revealed;
♦ the essence of the mechanism of the exchange rate formation of the Russian ruble until 2015 is revealed and the peculiarities of exchange rate formation in Russia since the transition to a floating exchange rate;
♦ The current problems are identified and the mid-term prospects for the formation of the Russian ruble exchange rate are evaluated.
|Email:||firstname.lastname@example.org; t-gorbacheva@ bk.ru; email@example.com|
|Сведения:||Konstantin G. Bunevich, Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Finance and Credit; Tatyana A. Gorbacheva, Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor of the Department of Finance and Credit; Andrey N. Brodunov, Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor, Deputy Head of the Department of Finance and Credit. - Witte Moscow State University.||95|
|Zhabin A.P., Tagirova N.F.|
|THE HISTORY OF SSEU AS A TOOL FOR DEVELOPING STUDENTS` FUTURE COMPETENCIES|
|SSEU turns 90 years old. In 2021. This is a good occasion not only for festive celebrations, this is also a reason to think about what the 90-year history of the university means to fulfill its main mission - to educate specialists with higher education who are able to successfully live and work in our rapidly changing world. How much knowledge of history a university graduate needs in general and what kind of history he needs-this difficult question is considered in this article in the context of the anniversary experienced by the university.
Keywords: history in the public space, history of the university, the goals of studying history, the competences of the university graduate, the competence of the future, historical consciousness, intergenerational relations.
♦ in the new world, other competencies will be needed. a graduate of the university will not only have to know his craft, but, equally important, have a broad outlook that allows to correctly navigate in global time and space. an important tool for the formation of future competencies is the study of history;
♦ studying the level of awareness of young people in the issues of history suggests that new means of educating historical consciousness are now needed. Such means could be the localization of historical material and its "revival" by linking it to the realities close to the student - the past of his family, the city, the university in which he studies;
♦ The 90-year history of SSEU provides extensive material for enriching the historical consciousness of students. But this material needs to be replenished, needs deeper understanding and the development of new forms of its presentation to students;
♦ an important and very difficult point in the education of historical consciousness is the mental gap between different generations, which are mostly students and teachers. Reducing this gap is necessary and possible. Studying the history of a university can be an effective mean of promoting this;
♦ the theme of history is organically combined with the anniversary. But it should not stop after the anniversary celebrations. The history of the university should constantly work for the future, forming students` new competencies for a new world.
|Сведения:||Alexander P. Zhabin, Doctor of Economics, Professor, Head of the Department of Management; Nailya F. Tagirova, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Theory of Law and Philosophy. - Samara State University of Economics.||103|
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