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Вестник самарского государственного экономического университета
Vestnik of Samara State University of Economics
2021 №7 (201)
The article investigates the experience of forming the methodology for calculating the consumer price index (CPI) in France from the 1910s to the present. The peculiarities of the index functioning in France are determined by two factors: following the general trends in the development of the indicator methodology and the critical assessment by society of its role. In the first situation, the generalization of historical development is relevant in the light of the accumulation of experience in the formation of sample populations of settlements, points of sale and goods and services, that is necessary to improve the methodology of CPI calculation in other countries. The second situation of discussing the index functioning as an object of political manipulation in France is of scientific interest in order to study the significance of the indicator for society and transfer this experience to the socio-economic systems of other countries. The generalization of materials on data collection and computing techniques was carried out on the basis of dividing the CPI calculation into stages proposed by Rosstat and considered as standard within the framework of the international standard. The political context of the CPI development in France is presented in a separate part of the article on the basis of combining with methodology data for calculating the indicator.
Keywords: consumer price index (CPI), harmonized consumer price index, cost of living index, Boskin Commission, census of settlements in France, household budgets, index of minimum guaranteed interprofessional salary. Highlights: ♦ the principles of the formation of sample aggregates necessary for calculating the CPI of France and their changes during the XX - beginning of the XXI century are investigated; ♦ the specifics of calculating the CPI of France in dynamics, the features of the publication of the national CPI and additional consumer price indices are determined; ♦ the data on the criticism of the CPI of France in society in comparison with the published values of the index during aggravation periods of negative attitudes towards it are investigated and summarized.
Сведения:Maria A. Kozlova, Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Information Technology and Statistics of the Ural State University of Economics
This article raises the topical issue of determining the place and relationship of the digital and platform economies. Every year, new research institutes, initiatives, and ratings appear that explore platform companies and their platform business model. The main research directions of foreign and Russian research centers, initiatives that devote their research to the platform economy, platforms and platform business models are considered and systematized. The author solves the task of analyzing the works devoted to the platform economy, determining the formation level of theoretical understanding and explaining the legality of considering the analyzed term as a definition of a system of relationships and a component of a digital economy. The review and critical evaluation of international ratings of the platform economy subjects - platform companies. The instrumental and methodological apparatus of the research is based on the use of qualitative analysis with the application of observation and measurement, a systematic approach, methods and methods of grouping, generalization of theoretical and factual material, modeling and tools for graphical interpretation of conceptual dependencies.
Keywords: platform economy, digital economy, platform companies, platforms. Highlights: ♦ systematized information about leading research centers and initiatives for the study of platform economics, platform companies and platform business models; ♦ the level of formation of the theoretical understanding of the term "platform economy" is determined and the author`s definition of the platform economy is proposed; ♦ a comparative analysis of the functionality and methodological basis of international ratings of platform companies has been carried out.
Сведения:Milena M. Balanova, postgraduate student of Rostov State University of Economics (RINH)
The emergence of new global challenges of economic development actualizes the problem of creating an effective system of economic security of enterprises. In this regard, the classification and assessment of the materiality level of risks and threats to economic security become the fundamental condition for the successful functioning and development of economic entities. Thus, the aim of the study is to develop a unified approach to the decomposition of various social, environmental and managerial factors that affect (can influence) the economic security of enterprises in various sectors of the economy in a non-linear economic environment.
Keywords: economic security of enterprises, threats, ESG risks. Highlights: ♦ the analysis of approaches to the definition of the concept of "economic security of the enterprise" is carried out; ♦ the definitions of the terms "economic security of enterprises" and "ESG risks" are formulated; ♦ the classification of ESG risks of economic security is systematized; ♦ the decomposition and assessment of the materiality level of ESG risks of sustainable development was carried out, taking into account industry specifics; ♦ systematization and assessment of the materiality level of ESG risks of sustainable development for enterprises of the extractive industry has been carried out; ♦ the main directions of improving the effectiveness of the analysis of risks and threats to the economic security of enterprises are formulated.
Сведения:Victoria V. Kozhukhova, Lecturer at Samara State University of Economics
The article investigates the economic aspects of the functioning and development of engineering education in Russia. The relevance of this issue is determined by the active innovative development of our society, in accordance with global trends, as well as the requirements for graduates of engineering specialties. Innovative development is impossible without modernization of engineering education as one of the main components of innovation processes. All this has a significant impact on the economic development of the country and its position on the world market. In this regard, the purpose of this research is to study functioning conditions of engineering education in Russia. The analysis has shown the relevance of a comprehensive study of the engineering education development, which is confirmed by the geography of scientific publications. In the course of the study, the authors identified the following development areas of engineering education in Russia: using the knowledge and experience of the old school personnel to update educational programs, expanding the area of interests of engineering education in the country, focusing on retaining scientific and practical personnel in the country and, as a result, forming a personnel reserve, expanding student exchange programs and using existing laboratories and centers to exchange experience and use it in practical tasks to improve the quality of the educational process.
Keywords: engineering education, economic conditions of functioning, economic effect, innovative development. Highlights: ♦ the issues of functioning and development of engineering education remain relevant for the world community for a long time; ♦ the main factors influencing the functioning of engineering education in Russia are the state policy in the field of priority areas of development, the financing of education, the outflow of young highly qualified personnel from the country and limited access to foreign technologies; ♦ at the same time, Russia has a fairly strong staff of the "old school", there are its own laboratories and research centers at universities, as well as an exchange of students at the international level.
Сведения:Valentina V. Mantulenko, Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Applied Management; Daria V. Aleshkova, specialist in UMR of the Department for the Support of Pubic Activity. - Samara State University of Economics
The study aims to explore the relationship between the pandemic and the tourism industry. The emergence of infectious diseases is one of the consequences of tourism and mobility of citizens. The article examines the scientific research of foreign authors on the impact of epidemiological diseases on the tourism industry. The pricing strategies of travel companies caused by the policy of curbing the spread of coronavirus infection are analyzed. The authors cite some forms of adaptation of the tourism industry to the conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic (in such countries as Costa Rica, Jamaica, the Republic of Fiji, Finland, Greece, Iceland, Israel, Japan, the UAE, China). A statistical analysis of the tourism development in the Russian Federation (the number of incoming and outgoing tourists, the number of hotels and similar accommodation facilities) was carried out. The COVID-19 pandemic has reoriented the outbound tourist flow to domestic destinations. The advantages of developing domestic trips in comparison with international ones regarding their role in the economic development of regions are presented. The pandemic has led to an inevitable surge in the use of digital technologies due to the norms of social distancing and nationwide restrictions. One of the most popular forms of technological applications in the tourism industry is virtual reality. The use of virtual reality can contribute to the creation of a new, more sustainable model of tourism. The article presents four scenarios for the recovery of world tourism, developed by the McKinsey Global Institute and the Oxford Institute of Economic Policy (Oxford Economics). The authors identified priority areas of transformation of the tourism industry in the post-pandemic period, including at the technological level.
Keywords: tourism, COVID-19, virtual reality, domestic travel, pricing, crisis, pandemic, tourist. Highlights: ♦ as a result of the analysis of scientific articles by foreign authors, the negative impact of epidemiological diseases on the tourism industry has been revealed; ♦ examples of adaptation of the tourism industry to the conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic include the following: Costa Rica - 16 health and hygiene protocols, postponement of holidays, including Monday; Jamaica - a policy aimed at preventing bankruptcy and supporting jobs in the tourism sector, discounts on domestic trips; the Republic of Fiji - the Blue Lanes project; Finland -the "100 Reasons to go to Finland" campaign; Greece - the "Greece from Home" online platform; Iceland - tourist vouchers; Israel - online virtual tours to places and attractions; Japan - subsidies worth more than 10 billion US dollars; UAE - Emirates airline introduced thermal screening of all passengers; China - kiosks using facial recognition; ♦ statistical analysis of the tourism sector in the Russian Federation showed a sharp drop in outbound (3.6 times) and inbound (3.8 times) tourist flows (in 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic forced the closure of about 902 hotels and similar accommodation facilities); ♦ in connection with the closure of borders, the demand for domestic tourism has increased, which, in turn, contributes to the economic development of the country and regions and solves the problem of seasonality of Russian tourism; ♦ the COVID-19 pandemic has led to an inevitable surge in the use of digital technologies due to social distancing norms and nationwide restrictions; ♦ the coronavirus infection has provided an opportunity for the tourism business to transform, among the priority areas of the industry`s recovery are quality improvement, product diversion, demand for domestic travel, increased sustainability, digitalization, ecologization and partnership.
Email:anastastyast@yandex.ru; alexsarafanov@mail.ru
Сведения:Anastasia G. Sarafanova, Researcher at the Department of Recreational Geography and Tourism.; Alexander A. Sarafanov, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Researcher at the Department of Recreational Geography and Tourism. - Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Geography
The relevance of the research is determined by the need to generalize the nature and content of the impression economy, which, in the conditions of digitalization of social and economic development, acquires the features of the resource nature of reproduction. It is emphasized that the economy of expectations and the economy of impressions in the digital age have a different content nature, an impression in the literal sense of this concept cannot be called a product or service, reviews and impressions are intangible. The provisions of the influence of impressions and reviews on the activities of business structures in the context of digital transformation are summarized. Specific features of managing the experience of digital interaction with business structures in ideal conditions are revealed, taking into account the assessment of impressions, the enlarged qualitative differences in the nature of impressions in the conditions of analog and digital economy are analyzed. Structuring is given and the features of impressions and reviews in the conditions of analog and digital economy are analyzed (speed of distribution, breadth and depth of coverage, involvement in the process, satisfaction). The content and specific socio-economic nature of reviews and impressions in the digital economy are considered. The importance of studying impressions and reviews of goods, works and services to ensure sustainable and cost-effective activities of enterprises is emphasized.
Keywords: digitalization, impressions, business structures, structuring of reviews, impact of impressions, digital interaction. Highlights: ♦ digitalization as a phenomenon of decisive transformations of the system of public relations and production and economic activity is rapidly changing the appearance and nature of the organization and management of business processes in the conditions of network evaluation of impressions; ♦ impressions and feedback on the results of socio-economic activity, evaluation of goods, works and services become an important resource for improving the efficiency of business activities; ♦ the satisfaction degree of various aspects of the clientele`s demand based on impressions receives a wide range of results that contribute to a deep analysis of the necessary areas for improving the efficiency of business activities.
Сведения:Leonid I. Sergeev, Doctor of Economics, Professor, Honored Economist of the Russian Federation, Head of the Department of Kaliningrad State Technical University
The article considers types of financial risks and their impact on the performance of organizations, justifies the need to introduce a risk function among the functions of financial management, reveals its content and role in financial management of commercial organizations forced to lack financial and credit resources in the conditions of recovery from the economic crisis.
Keywords: commercial organizations, financial risks, risk management, financial management, risk function, insurance, risk management. Highlights: ♦ various approaches to the classification of financial management functions have been studied; ♦ the analysis of quantitative indicators characterizing the impact of risks on the performance of organizations has been carried out; ♦ the necessity of allocating a risk function in the totality of financial management functions is substantiated and its content is disclosed; ♦ specific features of the impact of the risk function on the financial management of commercial organizations are determined.
Email:fikr@bk.ru; olegkhvostenko@yandex.ru
Сведения:Mikhail A. Pershin, Head of the "Insurance Services" department of the Federal Postal Service of the Samara region.; Oleg A. Khvostenko, Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor of Finance and Credit Department of Samara State University of Economics
The state economies of our time are faced with the urgent task of developing innovative campaigns to address issues of digital financial asset management. This trend is caused by the development of technological systems for providing financial services and products on the world market. The proposed instrument for regulating digital banking is the integration into the domestic economy of a new form of money - the digital currency of the central bank (digital ruble). The purpose of the study is to form an idea about the issue of digital financial assets and, as a result, to develop an effective way to introduce digital financial assets "digital ruble" into the domestic financial infrastructure. The shortcomings of the existing domestic legislation regarding the regulation of exchange processes and regulation of the turnover of digital financial assets are revealed. The concepts of "issue of digital financial assets", "digital ruble" are disclosed. The processes of issuing the digital ruble, the planned turnover in the domestic financial system, the possibility of converting digital financial assets being introduced into cash and non-cash money are considered. The position of the digital ruble in the structure of the domestic money supply is determined. Potential problems in the economic system in the process of integrating the digital ruble into it are noted. The processes of pricing and fixing the value of digital financial assets are considered. The analysis of the issue of digital financial assets showed a technical flaw and a general limitation in the functionality of the digital ruble, which is supposed to be integrated.
Keywords: digital financial assets, digital ruble, digital currency, ICO project, cryptocurrency, issue, internet banking. Highlights: ♦ the digital ruble planned by the Central Bank of Russia to be introduced into the domestic economic system is not a full-fledged digital financial asset; ♦ the digital ruble, in the process of being introduced into the domestic economic field, acquires properties characteristic of another type of fiat money; ♦ the introduction of the central bank`s digital currency (digital ruble) into the Russian financial system will lead to a change in the structure of the money supply, reducing the volume of aggregators M0, M1.
Email:vico-n-t@ yandex.ru; kostyapetrov92@mail.ru
Сведения:Viktor N. Terentyev, post-graduate student, Volga State Technological University.; Konstantin G. Petrov, postgraduate student, Samara National Research University named after Academician S.P. Korolev (Samara University)
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