|Вестник самарского государственного экономического университета
Vestnik of Samara State University of Economics
|2021 №3 (197)
|GOVERNMENT FUNDING FOR AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH IN THE UNITED STATES|
|The innovation-oriented effective development of US agriculture is determined by the quantity and quality of the implemented results of agricultural research, funded by the main funds holder - the state. The purpose of the study is to identify trends in government funding of agricultural science in the United States. The rationale for these trends is considered in the unity of the dynamics and structure of state financing of agricultural research in 1889-2019 and the system characteristics of this process as an economic phenomenon. Using the techniques of statistical-economic and abstract-logical methods of research, combined with a historical approach to the subject of study, the author obtained empirical results reflecting the dynamics of structural changes in the state financing of agricultural research in the United States in different time periods. The trends towards regionali-zation of agricultural science subsidies within the federal state are also identified.
Keywords: US agriculture, government funding, agricultural research, US Department of Agriculture, state agricultural experiment stations, Extension service.
♦ the theoretical (institutional) and methodological aspects of the study of the dynamics and structure of state funding of agricultural research in the United States are outlined;
♦ the structural and dynamic trends of state funding of agricultural research in the United States as an economic phenomenon of the development of agricultural production in 1889-2019 are identified and justified.
|Сведения:|| Valery N. Minat, Candidate of Geography, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Economics and Management of the Ryazan State Agrotechnological University by P.A. Kostychev.||9|
|Noskov V.A., Ilyina A.S.|
|WORLD EXPERIENCE OF IMPORT SUBSTITUTION AND REINDUSTRIALIZATION AND RUSSIA`S ECONOMIC SECURITY POLICY|
|The purpose of the article is to assess the world experience of import substitution and reindustriali-zation policies in the economies of different countries in terms of development. The importance of applying this experience in the process of import substitution and the unfolding reindustrialization in Russia is outlined. The author analyzes the prerequisites and causes of import substitution and reindustrialization in the world economy. The study of the world experience of import substitution and reindustrialization of the economy, its macro-regional features is carried out in the context of maintaining and developing Russia`s economic security. The author`s understanding of the problems and prospects of the development of import substitution and reindustrialization processes in the world is proposed. The positive and negative aspects of the policy pursued by a number of countries are noted. It is proposed to continue improving the policy of import substitution and reindustrialization carried out by Russia, taking into account the author`s developments.
Keywords: import substitution policy, reindustrialization of the economy, economic security of Russia.
♦ the author analyzes the prerequisites and causes of import substitution and reindustrialization in the world economy;
♦ the problems and prospects of the development of import substitution and reindustrialization processes in the world are identified;
♦ the author`s understanding of the positive and negative aspects of the policy pursued by a number of countries is given.
|Сведения:||Vladimir A. Noskov, Doctor of Economics, Professor.; Alexandra S. Ilyina, Graduate student. - Samara State University of Economics.||17|
|ECONOMICS, ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATIONS, BRANCHES, COMPLEXES|
|Ibragimova R.S., Yakovleva A.V.|
|THE CONCEPT OF CONSUMER ACTIVITY AS AN APPROACH TO THE FORMATION OF A CUSTOMER BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM|
|The article is devoted to the actual problem of improving the management of customer behavior, the importance of which has been increasing in recent years due to the increasing need for business customization to strengthen competitiveness on the market. The author`s interpretation of the category «customer behavior management system» is given. The approach to the formation of an effective structure of the management system based on the integration of the concept of stimulating consumer activity is justified. The application of the proposed approach is illustrated by the example of a car holding dealer company to solve the problem of building the architecture of a corporate customer behavior management system.
Keywords: customer behavior, customer relationship management, management system, consumer activity, customer life cycle, zonal purchase space, digitalization of management, CRM.
♦ a conceptual approach to the formation of an effective structure of the customer behavior management system is proposed, the novelty of which consists in the integration of two concepts of stimulating consumer activity - the «customer life cycle» and the «zonal 3D space of the purchase process»;
♦ based on the essence of the concepts of stimulating consumer activity, the author`s interpretation of the category "customer behavior management system" is justified;
♦ the proposed approach is tested on the example of building the architecture of a customer behavior management system for a car holding dealer company.
|Сведения:||Rosalia S. Ibragimova, Doctor of Economics, Professor.; Alina V. Yakovleva, Graduate student. - Ivanovo State University.||28|
|Ilyina L.A., Demina A.A.|
|ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF REENGINEERING OF GROUND INFRASTRUCTURE OF OIL AND GAS PRODUCING ENTERPRISES|
|The article analyzes the composition of the ground infrastructure of an oil and gas producing enterprise, its main characteristics, as well as the cycle of infrastructure development within the framework of technological aspects. The features of operation methods of ground facilities objects of oil and gas fields in relation to the nature of the allocation of costs and the transparency of investment are given. The differences between infrastructure maintenance and optimization measures, as well as between the concepts of optimization and development/adaptation, are established. The differences are that the main goal of optimization is to reduce costs or minimize risks, the development/adaptation of existing production capacities is most often carried out for technological reasons, and the maintenance of the existing infrastructure and its operating modes is carried out exclusively in accordance with the design characteristics. The analysis of the methods of operation of the ground infrastructure facilities of the fields showed that when implementing reengineering programs, a comprehensive approach to their assessment is implemented, which allows the most efficient use of financial resources.
Keywords: cost allocation, capital and operating costs (ОРЕХ, CAPEX), oil and gas industry infrastructure, infrastructure reengineering, infrastructure life cycle, investments.
♦ it is shown that the most interesting and significant stage of the life cycle of an object of production activity is the reengineering of ground infrastructure objects;
♦ the basic options for implementing the work of ground infrastructure facilities are identified -operation, development, optimization, liquidation, maintenance of infrastructure, which reflect the nature of the allocation of costs (ОРЕХ, САРЕХ) and transparency for investment;
♦ reengineering is a fundamental change in the course of the technological process and in the operation of technological equipment and implies a qualitatively new stage in the cycle of development of ground infrastructure.
|Сведения:||Larisa A. Ilyina, Doctor of Economics, Associate Professor, Samara State University of Economics.; Angelina A. Demina, Graduate student, Samara State Technical University.||36|
|NATURE OF THE DIGITAL ECONOMY OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES AND THE RESOURCE FOR ENSURING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS MANAGEMENT|
|At the present stage, the development of the domestic economy is closely connected with the digi-talization of the activities of industrial enterprises as the main producers of vital material values. Based on the analysis, the nature of the digital economy of industrial enterprises is substantiated and a system-structured model of its construction is proposed. Taking into account the importance of scientific and technological progress for industrial enterprises, a conceptual system-digital model of quantitative linking and balancing of scientific and technological progress management functions and their components was developed. The model combines the functions management content into an integral unit in order to obtain objective quantitative indicators from each of them and from the totality of their actions. The model of level relations of divisions of the industrial enterprises participating in their scientific and technical activity is developed. It is focused on the transition from disparate actions of business units to actions that combine them on a systematic basis, thereby eliminating the existing disorder in their interaction in response to the request of the digital economy to ensure the accuracy of the results obtained from them. Assigning the most important place to the assessment of the economic efficiency of scientific and technical activities and their developments, and taking into account the fact that labor costs have a great influence on its formation, the need to streamline their regulatory framework, which allows on a parity basis to provide time standards for the implementation of individual stages of the development of scientific and technical products, is shown. The recommendations and suggestions presented in the article are aimed at high-quality training and active inclusion of industrial enterprises and their scientific and technical potential in the digital economy and at their effective functioning in its conditions as the most important strategic factor in the development of the economic system.
Keywords: digitalization of the economy, nature, industrial enterprise, scientific and technological progress, management, functions, divisions, efficiency, model.
♦ the nature of the digital economy of industrial enterprises is substantiated and a system-structured model of its construction is developed;
♦ a conceptual system-digital model of quantitative linking and balancing of the functions of managing the scientific and technological progress of industrial enterprises and their components is proposed;
♦ models of the level relations of the divisions of industrial enterprises participating in scientific and technical activity are developed;
♦ the article shows the need to streamline the regulatory framework for determining labor costs, which makes it possible to provide time standards for the implementation of certain stages of the development of scientific and technical products on a parity basis.
|Сведения:||Natalia V. Odinochenkova, Doctor of Economics, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of Industrial Economics, Bryansk State Technical University.||43|
|Streltsov A.V., Yakovlev G.I.|
|MEANINGFUL ASSESSMENT OF THE ROLE OF DEPRECIATION AS A SOURCE OF INVESTMENTS FOR THE ENTERPRISES MODERNIZATION|
|The study analyzes the nature of the modernization of the enterprise, identifies the factors that determine the need for its implementation in relation to Russian industrial enterprises, which were forced to miss several cycles of renewal as a result of the national economy reformation. It is necessary to comprehensively transform their material and technical bases to produce innovative, competitive products in the face of global uncertainties and increased competition on the target markets. The purpose of the study is to prove that the modernization of industrial enterprises is based on the transformation of their material and technical base, regular updating of fixed assets in order to eliminate their moral depreciation and the successful implementation of digital transformation. As a result, the study of the processes and algorithms for justifying the renewal and modernization of the formation of funds at the expense of internal sources of the enterprise investments. An approach to the assessment of their capabilities and importance to ensure the financing of modernization projects is proposed. Methods of statistical and comparative analysis, quantitative and qualitative analysis of economic phenomena and management of industrial enterprises were used to solve the set tasks. The characteristics of changes in profit, return on fixed assets and depreciation as sources of investments, depending on the dynamics of interest rates and inflation, are determined. The directions of increasing the importance of internal sources of enterprise investments for the implementation of its modernization projects are proposed. Key conclusions: it is necessary to build a comprehensive mechanism for managing the depreciation process of enterprises as its reproduction and modernization core. It is also necessary to ensure the targeted use of depreciation and the minimum return on funds accumulated by owners in the depreciation fund.
Keywords: modernization, fixed assets, sources of investment, depreciation, interest rate, profitability, investment attractiveness.
♦ nowadays, many domestic enterprises have a critical state of production capacity, physical deprecation exceeds the standard values, often in conditions of chronic underfunding, inappropriate withdrawal of depreciation funds for non-production needs, which negatively affects the competitiveness of enterprises in the digital economy;
♦ the modernization of the reproductive apparatus of enterprises requires the creation of a holistic mechanism for technical and organizational development, with a broad mobilization of investment sources to finance modernization projects. In connection with the current complex macroe-conomic conditions of economic activity, high rate of loan interests, the most important role is played by internal sources of investments for enterprises - depreciation and undistributed profits;
♦ following its economic content and role in the reproduction process, depreciation funds can take a significant share in the required amount of investment resources for the modernization and technical re-equipment of enterprises, with an appropriate effective approach to managing it and ensuring an acceptable rate of return on temporarily available financial resources.
|Сведения:||Alexey V. Streltsov, Doctor of Economics, Professor.; Gennady I. Yakovlev, Doctor of Economics, Professor of the Department of Economics, Organization and Strategy of Industrial Enterprises Development. - Samara State University of Economics.||53|
|Troshina E.P., Chizhova T.A.|
|RESEARCH OF APPROACHES TO THE ASSESSMENT OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF MEDIUM-SIZED BUSINESSES|
|With the increasing role assigned to the social mission of business in the formation of a positive image in front of the public, the problem of evaluating the activities in the field of corporate social responsibility (CSR) by organizations focused on successful development is becoming increasingly relevant. The article discusses the various approaches currently used in practice (including standards, sustainability indices, self-assessment models) that allow evaluating the activities of organizations in the field of CSR. Such a variety of evaluation methods is due to the fact that each of them has a number of limitations in its application, which should be considered. As a result of systemati-zation of the approaches to CSR assessment considered in the framework of the study, their comparative analysis was carried out in key areas of CSR. A significant result of the presented scientific work is the determination of the most appropriate method for assessing the activities of medium-sized businesses in all areas of CSR (environmental, social, economic, stakeholders, neighborli-ness).
Keywords: business, management, competitiveness, stakeholders, corporate social responsibility, socially responsible practices, sustainable development, sustainability index, self-assessment model, socially responsible investment.
♦ the key areas of CSR for which the organization`s performance is evaluated are identified;
♦ the most frequently used approaches in modern world practice (including standards, sustainabil-ity indices, self-assessment models) are studied and the possibility of their application for assessing the CSR of medium-sized businesses in all key areas of CSR is analyzed;
♦ based on the results of the analysis, the most appropriate approach for assessing the activities of medium-sized businesses in all areas of CSR (environmental, social, economic, stakeholders, neighborliness) was determined.
|Сведения:||Elena P. Troshina, Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor of the Department of Applied Management.; Tatyana A. Chizhova, Graduate student. - Samara State University of Economics.||63|
|FINANCE, MONETARY CIRCULATION AND CREDIT|
|Tershukova M.B., Abramov V.S.|
|THE ROLE OF THE BANK OF RUSSIA IN REGULATING THE ACTIVITIES OF CREDIT INSTITUTIONS|
|The article presents a study of the regulation of credit institutions activities carried out by the Bank of Russia. The relationship between the strengthening of the banking system and monetary regulation is revealed. In the process of monetary regulation, banks are influenced to improve their financial stability, which ultimately leads to the strengthening of the banking system. The author`s suggestions for improving the regulation of the activities of credit institutions are presented.
Keywords: Bank of Russia, regulation, banks, monetary regulation, monetary policy, targeting, monetary regulation tools.
♦ the theoretical foundations of the regulation of the activities of credit institutions are studied;
♦ the factors of the external and internal environment taken into account by the Bank of Russia when developing the forecast of the monetary sphere development are studied;
♦ the autho`s suggestions for the modernization and improvement of the efficiency and effectiveness of the regulation of credit institutions activities are formulated.
|Сведения:||Marina B. Tershukova, Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Finance and Credit.; Vitaliy S. Abramov, Graduate student. - Samara State University of Economics.||70|
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