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Вестник самарского государственного экономического университета
Vestnik of Samara State University of Economics
2023 №11 (229)
Global and Russian e-commerce markets: current trends and development prospects
Abstract In the conditions of modern realities, e-commerce is actively used in the supply and marketing activities of medium and large corporate structures, and also serves as a convenient and affordable tool for retail trade, whose customers are individuals. The obvious differences between e-commerce and traditional trade transactions, manifested in mobility, accessibility and efficiency, affect the steady growth of this trading method. Thanks to artificial intelligence, e-commerce demonstrates intensive development in social networks based on dynamic pricing, automation and personalization of sales.
Keywords: telecommunications, internet, electronic business, trade, trading platforms, digitalization, e-commerce, marketplaces, artificial intelligence, chatbots, website, application, social network. Highlights: ♦ based on the analytical review, trends in sales growth through e-commerce and an increase in its share in international business have been identified; ♦ the number of Internet users during the observation period is rapidly growing: the leaders of e-commerce in the international market are China, Great Britain and South Korea; Russia ranks 14th in e-commerce; ♦ the main trends in the growth of e-commerce are recorded in social networks, and thanks to the artificial intelligence of the substitute seller-consultant, buyer behavior is modeled, while dynamic pricing attracts and secures buyers on marketplaces; together, this set of measures contributes to maximizing the profits of e-commerce participants.
Email:anna.grigoryan_3105@mail.ru; ebrezneva@list.ru; galina7311@bk.ru
Сведения:Anna G. Grigoryan, Ekaterina V. Pustynnikova, Adelia N. Shaidullova - Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk, Russia
Perspective tasks of the transport system in increasing the economic security of the region
Abstract The article is devoted to the urgent tasks of improving and modernizing the transport system of the Sughd region of the Republic of Tajikistan. A set of measures for the development of the transport system of the region is proposed, the implementation of which will allow to qualitatively improve the transport infrastructure and logistics and thereby increase the economic security and investment attractiveness of the Sughd region. Based on the analysis of the state of road, rail, and aviation transport in the region, the authors conclude that there are significant infrastructure constraints that do not fully meet the increasing demand for freight and passenger transportation. Taking into account the identified imbalances, a set of promisingtasks for the development of transport in key areas is formulated, including road infrastructure, passenger transportation, railway modernization, air traffic and logistics. Special attention is paid to the development of the logistics infrastructure of the region, improving the technological efficiency of the industry, and training qualified personnel. It is emphasized that the long-term economic security and investment attractiveness of the Sughd region will depend on the solution of the identified tasks for the modernization of the transport system. The study has a pronounced practical orientation - based on the analysis of the current state of transport in the region, specific priorities for its further modernization are determined in order to stimulate sustainable economic growth.
Keywords: transport, transport system, transport infrastructure, logistics, IT technologies in logistics, economic security of the region, investment attractiveness, modernization of transport, sustainable development of the region. Highlights: ♦ the Sughd region occupies a leading position in the structure of the national economy of the republic, being a powerful industrial and agricultural region, and plays one of the key roles in the economic complex of Tajikistan, being a supporting administrative entity; ♦ the improvement and modernization of the transport system of Sughd region in order to ensure a high level of transport connectivity and accessibility will contribute to the economic growth of the country, increase the investment attractiveness of the region and improve the quality of life of the population; ♦ improving the regional logistics system, improving the quality of transport services, updating the fleet, introducing innovative technologies for managing and automating the transport sector are necessary conditions for ensuring the economic security of the region.
Email:iazizullo@businessconsulting.tj; tohirov.82@mail.ru
Сведения:Azizullo H. Avezov, Tokhirjon I. Tohirov - Tajik Technical University named after academician M.S. Osimi, Khujand, Republic of Tajikistan
Depreciation policy of organizations, its impact on the regional economy
Abstract With the help of depreciation, the depreciation of fixed assets is covered, their value is transferred to costs and ultimately participates in the formation of the cost of production. The amount of depreciation is significant in capital-intensive industries. By accruing depreciation as part of revenue, the necessary funds are generated to replace used fixed assets due to their moral and physical wear and tear with new, more productive ones. By stimulating the fullest use of fixed assets, depreciation plays a large role in the reproduction of fixed assets and forms a source for innovation processes. In the context of unforeseen Western sanctions aimed at weakening the Russian economy, the country faces the task of not only surviving, but also achieving significant rates of economic growth through the efficient use of all resources, including fixed assets, through an active investment policy, including depreciation. With the introduction of the provisions of Chapter 25 of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation, as well as in connection with a significant reduction in the useful life of fixed assets in accordance with the accepted classifier, organizations have the opportunity to independently conduct an effective depreciation policy. Article 286.1 of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation granted the constituent entities of the Russian Federation the right to introduce an investment tax deduction, according to which taxpayers were able to purchase equipment taking into account the corresponding costs in expenses when determining the tax base for corporate income tax. The purpose of the article is to use the example of three industrial regions of the Volga Federal District to study the effectiveness of the depreciation policy and its impact on the level of socio-economic development of the regions. It was revealed that in the regions, the possibilities of tax regulation in terms of carrying out an effective depreciation policy are used extremely insufficiently, which negatively affects the efficiency of using fixed assets.
Keywords: depreciation methods, degree of depreciation of fixed assets, useful life, increasing coefficients to depreciation rates, investments, depreciation bonus, capital productivity, capital-labor ratio, labor productivity. Highlights: ♦ with the introduction of Chapter 25 of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation, taxpayers have the opportunity to implement an effective tax (depreciation) policy, includingthe implementation of expenses with attribution to expenses taken into account when taxing profits (depreciation bonus, increasing coefficients to depreciation standards, etc.); ♦ the classifier of fixed assets has significantly reduced the useful life of fixed assets, setting it to the maximum 10th group of 30 years or more; ♦ about 30% of registered organizations provide zero reporting, about 1/3 of reporting enterprises are unprofitable, and therefore there are no sources for investment, in these conditions the need for an effective depreciation policy increases sharply; ♦ the situation in the regional economy is complicated by the fact that the degree of depreciation of fixed assets is more than 60%, the share of completely worn-out fixed assets is about 30%, and the renewal rate of fixed assets is low. Under these conditions, eliminating the gap with advanced countries in labor productivity becomes problematic; ♦ the study showed the inefficiency of the depreciation policy carried out in the regions; the laws on investment deductions adopted in the regions do not work, which really limits the technological improvement of enterprises and the economic development of the regions.
Сведения:Nikolay Z. Zotikov - Chuvash State University named after I.N. Ulyanov, Cheboksary, Russia
Digital transformation of the social sphere of an industrial region using the example of the Chelyabinsk region
Abstract Digital transformation is a process that covers all areas of life associated with the use of digital technologies. It involves introducing new technologies and changing the business models, processes and culture of organizations. Digital transformation can have a significant impact on the social sphere. This research is devoted to studyingthe process of digital transformation of the social sphere of an industrial region and developing a methodology for its assessment. The theoretical and methodological basis of the study are scientific ideas in the field of regional economics, spatial and regulatory analysis. When studyingthe problem of digitalization of the social sphere of an industrial region, the authors used system analysis, statistical methods, logical analysis, general scientific methods of cognition (scientific measurement, observation, analysis, synthesis, etc.), visual interpretation of research results. Digitalization of the social sphere in the region contributes to the development of an inclusive society in which all citizens have equal opportunities to access social services, while one of the main advantages of digitalization of the social sphere is improving the accessibility of social services for the population. In general, the Chelyabinsk region has its own characteristics and problems in the digital component of the social sphere, which require further development and improvement. However, in some aspects, the process of digital transformation of the social sphere is similar to the general situation in the Russian Federation, but at the same time it has its own specific features, depending on regional factors, such as the development level of the industrial sector of the economy, the volume of investments and the positions of regional authorities. The tools proposed in the article for assessing the level of digitalization of the social sphere of the region can be useful for regional and local authorities when developing strategies and programs for the development of digital transformation of the social sphere to achieve the best results.
Keywords: digital transformation, digitalization, social sphere, industrial region. Highlights: ♦ based on the results of the study, trends in digital transformation in the Chelyabinsk region were identified; ♦ an analysis of the process of digital transformation of the social sphere of the region was carried out usingthe example of the Chelyabinsk region; ♦ the dynamics is investigated and the prospects for further development in this direction are determined; ♦ a methodology has been developed that allows regular monitoring of the process of digital transformation of the social sphere of an industrial region; ♦ the groundwork for further research and testing of the proposed methodology for the regions of the Russian Federation has been determined.
Email:melenkina.sa@uiec.ru; uzhegov.ao@uiec.ru; tikhonova.ok@uiec.ru
Сведения:Svetlana A. Melenkina, Artyom 0. Uzhegov, Olga K. Tikhonova - Chelyabinsk Branch of the Institute of Economics of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Chelyabinsk, Russia
Development of technological startups in the energy sector: assessment of the infrastructure potential of Russian regions
Abstract At the present stage, the development of Russian energy is taking place in the context of challenges related to the achievement of technological sovereignty, the need to eliminate high depreciation of production assets, the transition to a carbon-neutral model of energy production, accelerated import substitution. There is a sharp increase in the need for newways of generating knowledge to solve complex problems and create innovative technologies based on them. As appropriate mechanisms, the article considers technological startups and specialized infrastructure of technological entrepreneurship, which are currently insufficiently studied in the industry aspect. The research was based on the application of classical methods of analysis, synthesis, classification, weighting coefficients, expert surveys, methods of conceptual design and visual analytics were used to build models of technological startups. As a result, a refined conceptual framework is presented, a conceptual model of the infrastructure of technological startups in the regional energy sector is created, a methodology for assessing the degree of its development is developed, the application of which is demonstrated by the example of a number of Russian regions. The proposed recommendations can be used by energy companies, as well as government agencies, when making decisions on the localization of high-tech industries for the needs of the industry and the activation of innovative processes in the regional energy sector.
Keywords: technological entrepreneurship, startups, regional energy, economic development, digitaliza-tion, technological modernization, innovative infrastructure. Highlights: ♦ technological startups and technological entrepreneurship are the drivers of the innovative process in the electric power industry, which requires comprehensive modernization within the framework of the national import substitution policy; ♦ the infrastructure of technology startups in the energy sector includes various entities that are in the process of constantly exchanging ideas, knowledge, resources and capital; ♦ the methodology for assessing infrastructure potential allows analyzing innovative activity in regional energy systems and making decisions on the localization of high-tech industries that meet promising industry objectives.
Сведения:Evgeny M. Starikov - Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Yekaterinburg, Russia
Labor market and manufacturing industry of the region: trends and mutual influence
Abstract. The aggravation of the demographic situation affects the development of regions to varying degrees, depending on the structure of their economy. With the active expansion of the use of automation and digitalization in the production process, the negative impact of a decrease in the number of able-bodied residents of the region is offset by a decrease in the labor intensity of production and an increase in the labor productivity. The study based on Rosstat data shows the specifics of the current situation in the labor market of the North-West of Russia, based on the dynamics of the population and the unemployed people. According to the results of a survey of managers of the manufacturing sector of the economy, the qualifications of employees and their level of education were assessed. An econometric model of the influence of quantitative and qualitative indicators characterizing the labor resources of the macroregion and the financing of innovative activity of the enterprise on the output of manufacturing industries is developed. According to the results of the study, it was revealed that, according to the econometric model, only an increase in the number of employees contributes to the increase in the output of manufacturing industries. The fact that the number of specialists with higher education and middle management has decreased in the macroregion since 2009 with an increase in output volumes indicates the processes of automation and digitalization in the North-West of Russia. Recommendations have been developed to enhance the output of the macroregionc`s manufacturing industry, stimulating the accelerated transition of production lines to automation and robotization.
Keywords: region, manufacturing industry, model, impact assessment, labor resources, qualified personnel. Highlights: ♦ the deterioration of the demographic situation in the industrially developed macroregion is increasing due to the complication of the geopolitical situation, which in turn negatively affects the manufacturing industry - one of the main actors of the regional economy; ♦ according to the estimates of the heads of the manufacturing sector of the economy of the North-West of Russia, enterprises felt the shortage of engineering and technical personnel and skilled workers of 44,6% and 39,2% respectively, while most of them are not interested in hiring foreign migrants (75,3%); ♦ according to the constructed influence model, it can be seen that the processes of automation and digitalization neutralize the trends towards population decline and do not prevent the increase in the output of manufacturing industries, however, the inactive flow of modernization processes is illustrated by the downward trend of the indicator of the costs of innovative activities of organizations.
Сведения:Elena Yu. Shirokova - Vologda Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vologda, Russia
Financial management in the public administration of developing countries: the challenges of aid effectiveness
Abstract Key aspects of public financial management of developing countries (DCs) are considered, namely: 1) general characterization of DCs; 2) effectiveness of foreign aid (FA); 3) Russia`s role in providing FA to DCs. The study was conducted using methods of monographic desk research and statistical analysis. It was found that there is currently no established definition of DCs. Several known classifications of DCs have been analyzed; it is shown that there are two main methods of revenue generation in DCs: a) FA; b) reforming public administration instruments in DCs. The authors used GNI per capita as the key classification criterion of DCs. It is revealed that there are three ways to solve the problem of the effectiveness of the FA to DCs: 1) application of the "economic growth with two deficits" model; 2) application of the institutional regulation of the FA to DCs; 3) provision of FA to DCs adhering to the "right political course". It is concluded that no matter which instrument of FA to DCs is chosen, the responsibility for the economic development of DCs lies entirely with national governments and depends on their activities and their foreign policy course. It is established that for a longtime the Russian Federation has been actively participating in the implementation of the FA to DCs programs and is the largest donor for the CIS countries. It is shown that despite the instability of relations with Western countries in the new economic conditions and the downturn in the Russian economy, the Russian Federation continues to work actively in international development institutions. It is summarized that in order to increase the effectiveness of financial management in the public administration of the Russian Federation, it is necessary to create open mechanisms of accountability and transparency, information content of channels for the dissemination of information about Russian politics in the field of FA to DCs. The implementation of such measures will make it possible to promptly inform the entire world community about the huge role and value-added content of Russia`s FA to DCs for the purposes of sustainable development.
Keywords: public administration, NPM, state regulation of the economy, financial management, developing countries, revenue mobilization of the country, GDP, effectiveness of foreign policy, foreign aid, external assistance, new economic environment, Russia. Highlights: ♦ the basic basis of financial management in public administration is the trend towards borrowing corporate governance techniques and methods; ♦ the main strategy of financial management in public administration of developing countries is an effective strategy of external assistance; ♦ the classifications of developing countries are considered; GNI per capita is chosen as the key classification criterion; ♦ three main directions of solving the problem of efficiency of developing countries are described; it is shown that the responsibility for the economic development of developing countries lies entirely with national governments and depends on their activities and their foreign policy course; ♦ the great role of Russia in the implementation of foreign aid programs for sustainable development is shown; ♦ the problem of improvingthe effectiveness of financial management in the public administration of the Russian Federation can be solved by creating mechanisms for openness and transparency, filling channels for the dissemination of information about Russian politics.
Email:galina_28@mail.ru; a.toshpulotov@yandex.com
Сведения:Galina V. Astratova - Ural Federal University named after the First President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Yekaterinburg, Russia, Ural Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Yekaterinburg, Russia; Alisher A. Toshpulotov - Russian-Tajik (Slavic) University, Dushanbe, Republic of Tajikistan
Application of methods for calculating income of digital rights of monetary claims
Abstract The article discusses a new trend in the modern Russian economy - digital financial assets. They introduce their own features into the activities of issuers and investors in the financial markets, complementing the already known methods and principles. The above study focuses on the possibility of applying groupings used for classic securities and bonds to digital financial assets. The methods of calculating income for digital instruments are evaluated in relation to the rights of monetary claims as the only digital financial instrument currently existing on the Russian financial market. The formulas used by various well-known issuers and examples of calculating income on financial instruments are given. A comparative analysis of some key indicators of digital financial asset issues is being done. To evaluate digital instruments, the income for which is not explicitly set by the issuer in decisions on the issue of digital financial assets, but is associated with the onset of an event, it is proposed to use expert systems and artificial intelligence systems.
Keywords: digital financial assets, methods of income assessment, financial instruments, rights of monetary claims, issuer, risk. Highlights: ♦ classification of digital financial assets, in relation to the rights of monetary claims, can be carried out by the method of calculating income by analogy with classical debt securities, bonds; ♦ analysis of digital financial assets, where income depends on the occurrence of an event (changes in quotations, price increases), will be more effective if modern digital valuation methods are used along with well-known methods; ♦ the use of new tools opens up a number of opportunities for the investor, but at the same time carries additional risks.
Сведения:Rinat M. Idrisov - Volga Region State University of Service, Toglyatti, Russia
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