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Вестник самарского государственного экономического университета
Vestnik of Samara State University of Economics
2022 №12 (218)
Economic aspects of globalization in the development of socio-economic systems
Abstract. The article, based on the methodology developed by the author, presents an analysis of the dynamics of economic indicators of the development of socio-economic systems, taking into account the impact of globalization. The author substantiates a sample of sixty-five states, which include the countries of the "Big Seven", "European Union", "Big Twenty" and a number of countries determined randomly. The analysis is carried out on the indicators, a part of which characterizes the overall development level of the socio-economic system, and fourteen indicators allow us to assess the impact of globalization on its development. For the research purposes, the information base is substantiated, the main part of which is formed by international statistical databases, such as UN statistics, statistics of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, statistics of the International Monetary Fund, statistics of the World Trade Organization, statistics of the European Union, statistics of the World Bank, Statistics of the Federal State Statistics Service of Russia and others.
Keywords: socio-economic system, development of socio-economic systems, globalization, dynamics of development, assessment of the impact of globalization Highlights: ♦ the dynamics of economic indicators characterizing the development of socio-economic systems for the period 2010-2020 is analyzed for the countries included in the assessment group, the main trends and dynamics factors are identified; ♦ the author carried out the assessment of indicators characterizing the impact of globalization in the economic sphere, which include not only the dynamics of exports and imports, but also specific indicators of foreign trade, the state of foreign investment, the dynamics of external debt and international reserves.
Сведения:Andrey V. Voloshin - Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Digital currencies of central banks and their application in modern conditions
Abstract. The article investigates key theoretical and practical aspects of the process of introducing digital currencies of central banks. It is shown that the main prerequisite for the formation of a digital model of fiduciary money is the active use of information technologies that determine the emergence of financial innovations. The article proves the position according to which the introduction of a new form of the national currency will contribute to improving the efficiency of monetary relations, transparency of financial flows, and the growth of real incomes of the population.
Keywords: money, digital currency, fiduciary money, trust, money supply, central bank, unit of account Highlights: ♦ the issue of funds is one of the key functions of central banks; money (banknotes, coins) is considered as units of account that have functions of exchange, circulation, and payment. But the use of cash in the conditions of the transition to the digital plane has decreased, which served as an incentive for central banks to actively study the supply of digital currency to the population; ♦ central banks, international financial institutions, studying the topic of digital currencies, reveal a wide range of models, types, on the basis of which the author has compiled a classification of digital currencies of central banks; ♦ ♦ the priority direction in the study of the digital currency of central banks (DCCB) is the possibility of its use in the cross-border settlements. For these purposes, the wholesale model of the DCCB is necessary. The existing payment systems for cross-border settlements have their own peculiarities, which, in turn, led to the fact that studies of wholesale models of central securities began to gain popularity; ♦ since 2022, a model of a digital currency, potentially used for cross-border payments, has been at the research stage; the ideologists are Hong Kong, Thailand, China and the UAE. The mBridge`s goal is to improve international trade settlements. The project provides an opportunity for participants from several jurisdictions to communicate directly with each other on a single integrated platform; ♦ the prototype of the Digital Ruble platform was created in December 2021 after public discussions and the release of the concept. In 2022, the legislation on the introduction of the digital ruble was being developed, at the moment the bill is at the 2nd stage of readings in the State Duma. In the near future, it is planned to pilot testing of the digital ruble in 11 cities at 30 trade and service enterprises.
Сведения:Maria E. Konovalova - Samara State University of Economics, Samara, Russia
Scientific and technological cooperation between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Korea: Problems and solutions
Abstract. Scientific and technical cooperation between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Korea has good prospects. The scientific and technical potential of the parties complements each other, both countries strive for effective and fruitful partnership, but the results of their cooperation cannot be fully called mutually beneficial. The transfer of "minds and technologies" has a pronounced bias towards South Korea. Russia buys South Korean high-value-added goods, supplying "brains" and raw materials in return. The Republic of Korea actively attracted technology and exported high value-added products, while Russia exported technology and bought finished products. Despite this, South Korea showed a great interest in the cooperation with Russia. The events of 2022 and the sanctions they caused created a unique chance to revise the existing relations and form a new strategy for bilateral relations. The work must be built on the basis of the challenges and tasks facing the Russian economy, with a detailed study of the vision and development plans of the Korean side. The author offers his own analysis of the causes of the current situation and ways to resolve it.
Keywords: scientific and technical cooperation, the Russian Federation, the Republic of Korea, technology Highlights: ♦ there is a need to develop a new position on the cooperation between Russia and the Republic of Korea and to prepare tools for its implementation; ♦ it is necessary to develop a concept of the scientific and technical cooperation based on program documents and long-term forecasts of the development of Russia and South Korea, clearly defining tasks of the bilateral cooperation for our country and the target dates for their solution; ♦ the goals and objectives of the scientific and technical policy of the Russian Federation, the mechanisms for its implementation, as well as the priorities of this policy in relation to South Korea should be clearly formulated and communicated to the broad business and scientific circles of both countries.
Сведения:Vasily E. Grudev - Ministry of Investment Policy of the Sakhalin Region, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Russia
Comparative analysis of motivation models in different countries of the world
Abstract. The article examines some specific features of existing motivation models characteristic of individual countries of the world. The relevance of the topic is due to the fact that the motivation system is one of the driving forces for any company and any economy, as it affects the ways of interaction with staff. A properly built motivation system allows you to significantly increase the labor productivity and establish organizational processes within any socio-economic system. In the course of the study, motivation models of Japan, the USA, France, Sweden and the UK were selected and analyzed. Their comparison is made and conclusions are drawn about their applicability in the Russian realities.
Keywords: world experience, motivation, motivation models of different countries Highlights: ♦ the methods of motivation developed in the West are not always and not in all Russian companies popular and applicable; ♦ motivation in the company is considered exclusively as an integral system; ♦ the system of staff motivation in different countries depends on the culture, customs, preferences of people.
Сведения:Valentina V. Mantulenko - Samara State University of Economics, Samara, Russia
Drivers of Dividend Policy Development at Multinational Corporations in the BRICS Countries
Abstract. This article presents the results of the analysis of the dividend policy of transnational corporations (TNC) in terms of studying the phenomenon of dividend smoothing and determining the speed of dividend adjustment, performed on the basis of the sample formed by the BRICS countries. To answer the research question based on the analysis of existing academic literature, the author formulates two hypotheses that test the relationship between the payout policy and two factors in the formation of a dividend policy of TNC: dividend smoothing and the country of origin of TNCs. Hypothesis testing is carried out by regression modeling methods based on the Lintner model. The results of the study illustrate the confirmation of these hypotheses, which makes it possible to come to conclusions that: 1) dividend smoothing is a significant factor determining the payout policy decisions made by the TNC management; 2) despite the existence of significant differences in decision-making on dividend payments in Russia and India, there are no significant factors in the payout policy of the Russian transnational corporations and ones from Brazil, China and South Africa. The future research on this topic should conceivably be directed towards an investigation of socio-economic and socio-cultural factors of the country that provide differences in the speed of dividend adjustment in the payout policy of TNCs.
Keywords: multinational corporation, dividend policy, dividend smoothing, BRICS Highlights: ♦ the inclusion in the problematic field of research of TNCs as subjects of the international economic relations of issues related to the formation of financial policy depending on the specific conditions of the country of origin and/or origin of TNCs allows us to expand the understanding of the factors that determine their strategic development in specific national conditions; ♦ smoothing of dividends is one of the key aspects of the corporate dividend policy, determined by both financial (company size, capital structure, profit volatility) and non-financial (ownership structure, corporate governance) drivers; ♦ the policy of dividend smoothing is a fairly common phenomenon among TNCs whose country of origin is the BRICS countries, but there are no significant differences in the dividend policy of TNCs originating from Brazil, Russia, India, China or South Africa.
Email: vladruz13@gmail.com; mvkurnikova@gmail.com; alexdetsko@gmail.com
Сведения:Vladislav S. Ruzinsky, Marina V. Kurnikova, Alexander F. Detsko - Samara State University of Economics, Samara, Russia
Autarky versus globalization: innovation as a pillar
Abstract. Western sanctions are unsuccessfully trying to throw the Russian economy into a state of autarky, excluding it from the international economic and political processes. Autarky is characterized by the complete closure of the economy from the outside world, which leads to a decrease in the competitiveness of the country. In this regard, the article evaluates this perspective and identifies factors that contribute to ensuring the competitiveness of the Russian economy in the long term. For this purpose, two extreme economic models are compared: autarky and globalization, and their brief characteristics are given. It is shown that the option of full autarky for Russia seems unlikely. However, the inability to take advantage of globalization (primarily the exchange of knowledge, technology and foreign trade) limits the competitiveness of the Russian economy. There is no alternative to the need to ensure technological sovereignty, the development based on innovation. The relevant key factors have been identified: the availability of natural resources, the development of logistics and infrastructure, the preservation and attraction of foreign human capital, inexpensive finance, strengthening cross-border cooperation of border regions, control over the use of funds. In order to attract qualified labor resources from abroad, it is proposed to introduce a register of scarce professions and create favorable conditions for moving to Russia. Joint innovative projects with subsequent commercialization in the developing countries will contribute to strengthening the cross-border cooperation with neighboring countries of the "safe zone" (Kazakhstan, China).
Keywords: autarky, globalization, cross-border cooperation, innovation, technological sovereignty Highlights: ♦ full autarky in the modern world is more of a utopia than the reality of the economy and an unlikely scenario for Russia; ♦ in order to maintain competitiveness, it is necessary to prevent military operations on the territory of Russia, create favorable conditions for high-tech production and innovations with a perspective for decades to come (think strategically, act tactically); ♦ key factors of ensuring the competitiveness of the Russian economy are natural resources, human capital, logistics, finance, cross-border cooperation, control.
Сведения:Galina A. Khmeleva - Samara State University of Economics, Samara, Russia
Contradictions in the development of the processes of international economic integration of the Russian Federation and China
Abstract. The article is devoted to the actual problem of integration processes taking place in many countries at the present stage of the historical process. The development of the economic integration of Russia and China seems to be very productive and promising. Despite the existence of certain strategic contradictions, the economic integration of Russia and China will ensure the realization of the national interests of two countries. The article reveals key directions of the policy improvement for managing the process of the economic integration between Russia and China.
Keywords: integration, economic union, energy sector, strategic contradictions, economic security, national interests Highlights: ♦ the functioning of the socio-economic system of Russia in the conditions of increasing geopolitical tension makes it necessary to search for new forms of interaction with friendly countries, one of them is the People`s Republic of China (PRC), with which our country is connected by a long history of mutual relations at various levels; ♦ despite a certain positive dynamics in the development of integration processes between Russia and China, there are a number of strategic contradictions of economic, mental, and cultural character that require careful study in order to level them out; ♦ there are a number of promising areas of cooperation between our countries, one of which is the development of cooperation in the energy sector. Currently, quite a large number of Russian companies have agreements with Chinese organizations within the framework of cooperation in the field of energy; ♦ these ageements require a certain improvement of the mechanism for managing the process of economic integration in order to increase the efficiency of the implementation of contractual obligations, transparency of logistics routes, which will bring cooperation between the two countries to a new level.
Email:zhangtingshuo1201@gmail.com; lenar_s@mail.ru
Сведения:Zhang Tingshuo, Lenar N. Safiullin - Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan, Russia
Directions of increasing the competitiveness of the national economy through sustainable development of human capital
Abstract. The article investigates approaches to determining the competitiveness of the national economy, suggests possible ways to improve it, which include the development of infrastructure, improving the investment climate, increasing the level of human capital, promoting innovations, small and medium-sized businesses. The concept of sustainable development and its main components are given. Sustainable development implies the maintenance of the ecological, socio-economic balance. Such development should meet needs of the current generation, but not harm the ability of future generations to meet their needs. The connection of sustainable development with human capital, which is a set of accumulated human knowledge, skills, abilities and his health, is revealed. Particular attention is paid to the issue of investing in human capital and the study of its development factors. Such investments are carried out in education, healthcare, affect the development of innovations, social inclusion. The authors also assessed the development level of the human capital of the Russian Federation. Based on the results of the assessment, it was concluded that it is necessary to develop measures to improve the state of human capital development. The issue of further improvement of the education system as the main factor of increasing human capital is especially important. In conclusion, the conclusions summarizing this study are made.
Keywords: competitiveness, sustainable development, human capital, level of human capital development Highlights: ♦ the key areas of increasing the national competitiveness of the Russian economy are infrastructure development, improvement of the investment climate, human capital development, promotion of innovations, development of small and medium-sized businesses; ♦ sustainable development is based on the "triple goal", which includes such components as economic sustainability, environmental sustainability, social justice; ♦ sustainable development and human capital are interrelated.
Email:o.shylets@donnu.ru; vkravchenko@donnu.ru; alya.sukhinina.97@mail.ru
Сведения:Elena S. Shilets, Victoria A. Kravchenko, Alina O. Sukhinina - Donetsk State University, Donetsk, Russia
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