|Вестник самарского государственного экономического университета
Vestnik of Samara State University of Economics
|2021 №11 (205)
|Spatial dynamics of personnel training in universities United States of America|
|Abstract. The subject of this study is defined as a system for training highly qualified personnel in the United States, which has more than a century-old tradition of space-time evolution, based on the historical development of a network of higher educational institutions in the country, the basis of which is represented by research universities. Using the methods of economic and statistical analysis, undertaken within the framework of the evolutionary genetic approach, a study was carried out of the spatial dynamics of training highly qualified personnel (doctors of science) at US universities over a hundred-year period from 1919 to 2019. Based on the results obtained for the distribution of highly qualified personnel at various stages of their careers, tied to the place of birth, graduation from high school, obtaining an academic degree and main job, an assessment of the spatial-temporal dynamics of the geographical distribution of doctors of sciences in the statistical regions of the United States was given, and spatial-temporal trends of the research subject as an economic phenomenon were identified.
Keywords: highly qualified personnel, US universities, US higher education system, US research universities, geographic distribution of scientists
♦ directions of the spatial organization of highly qualified personnel training in the United States, associated with the network of American universities in 1919-2019, were explored;
♦ the distribution of highly qualified personnel at various stages of their careers was presented based on the place of birth, graduation from high school, obtaining an academic degree and main job; an assessment of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the geographical distribution of doctors of sciences in the statistical regions of the United States was given;
♦ the spatio-temporal trends have been identified, reflecting the dynamics of the training of highly qualified personnel carried out by American research universities in the context of the geographical distribution of scientists with a doctoral degree.
|Сведения:||Valery N. Minat, Ryazan State Agrotechnological University named after P.A. Kostychev, Ryazan, Russia||9|
|ECONOMICS, ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATIONS, BRANCHES, COMPLEXES|
|To the question on the use of assessment indicators of the economic security of citizens to determine need criteria|
|Abstract. The subject of the research is the possibility of using indicators for assessing the level of economic security to assess the level of citizens` needs. The author considers the definitions of the need criteria and economic security, their essential characteristics, reveals significant aspects of assessing the level of economic security at the level of a person and a citizen, using economic and assessment methods. It was also concluded that it is possible to use criteria for assessing financial security to identify categories of citizens in need of material support.
Keywords: need criteria, economic security, economic security of an individual, indicators of economic security, social treasury
♦ to perform functions of the social treasury, the state needs to develop a methodological basis for assessing the level of citizens` needs based on criteria analysis and on data collected by state bodies;
♦ in the context of identifying socially vulnerable groups of the population, it is necessary to consider the use of the methodology for assessing the economic security of citizens;
♦ it is assumed that the system of differentiated support will be further developed towards digitalization and automation of the processes of collecting information, making decisions on payments and making transactions.
|Сведения:||Olga S. Aksinina, Samara State University of Economics, Samara, Russia||17|
|Impact of the pandemic on the implementation of concession agreements|
|Abstract. In recent years, concession agreements have proved to be a popular form of implementation of infrastructure projects in various industries. The article investigates changes in the market of concession agreements with the emergence of a new coronavirus infection COVID-19. At the same time, the purpose of this article is to demonstrate the main development directions of concession agreements in the context of the pandemic. The main methods of achieving the set goal were the methods of comparative and structural analysis, as well as the method of generalization of the analyzed material related to the research topic. The article analyzes the results of monitoring the conclusion and implementation of concession agreements for 2019 and 2020. The results of the analysis allowed us to conclude that there is no catastrophic drop in investor interest in the implementation of infrastructure projects using the concession agreement mechanism. Particular attention is paid to the consideration of the increased risks of the implementation of concession projects during the pandemic, including construction, temporary risks, as well as the risks of financing the concession project. At the same time, the measures currently being implemented to reduce these risks are given. The scientific novelty of the article consists in analyzing the feasibility of implementing infrastructure projects using the concession agreement mechanism, taking into account the prevailing epidemiological conditions.
Keywords: the pandemic and concession agreements, the implementation of concession agreements, the rise in the cost of construction, the risks of implementing concession projects
♦ the impact of the pandemic on the implementation of concession agreements is assessed;
♦ the risks of implementing concession agreements in modern epidemiological conditions are determined.
|Сведения:||Sergey S. Igoshin, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia,||25|
|Romanov P.A., Perepelkin V.A., Romanova A.A.|
|The role of innovative ecosystems in stimulating the economic modernization|
|Abstract. The success of the modernization of the national economy largely depends on the effectiveness of the innovative ecosystems functioning that combine the processes of generating ideas, their implementation in practice and the commercialization of the resulting products. In turn, the formation of innovative ecosystems is determined by the stimulating role of administrative regulation, the availability of a scientific base (universities, research centers), as well as effective cooperation between all its elements. The development of an innovation ecosystem, which makes it possible to link the goals of its participants and optimize relations between them, is currently considered as a decisive factor in increasing the competitiveness of the national economy. This study is based on the results of processing the time series submitted by the World Intellectual Property Organisation and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development using the index method, calculating relative indicators. Checking the closeness of the connection of the series of dynamics was carried out using economic and mathematical methods, in particular, correlation analysis. The article examines the experience of the formation and development of the innovation ecosystem of China, based on the support of cooperation between companies, the state, and researchers, including through innovative platforms that allow expanding the circle of participants in innovation processes, which ultimately creates the basis for a radical increase in the productivity of innovations. The paper proves that a developed innovation ecosystem can be considered as a factor in increasing the efficiency of the process of modernization of the national economy.
Keywords: innovative ecosystem, innovation, innovative activities, global innovation index, innovative transformation of the economy, patents
♦ theoretical and methodological aspects of the study of the formation of developed innovative ecosystems as a factor in the modernization of the national economy are presented;
♦ the analysis of development features of corporate innovation ecosystems of the People`s Republic of China, specifics of interaction of their elements is carried out;
♦ on the example of the experience of innovative transformation of the Chinese economy, the need to ensure coordination and cooperation of elements of the innovative ecosystem as the optimal way to increase the efficiency of innovative activities is identified and substantiated.
|Email:||email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com|
|Сведения:||Petr A. Romanov, Central Russian Institute of Management - branch of the RANEPA, Orel, Russia; Viacheslav A. Perepelkin, Samara State University of Economics, Samara, Russia, Anna A. Romanova, Orel State University named after I.S. Turgenev, Orel, Russia||31|
|Streltsov A.V., Yakovlev G.I.|
|Strategy of acceleration of innovative development and entrepreneurship of a machine-building enterprise|
|Abstract. The problems of ensuring the sustainable development and competitiveness of Russian enterprises of manufacturing industries, mechanical engineering, solved by developing and implementing an innovative development strategy and applying an entrepreneurial style of activity, are investigated. The successful implementation of innovative activities of machine-building enterprises is ensured by the effective conduct of modern research and development, including the use of digital industrial platforms, and full consideration of the technical and organizational features of "machine-building" activities functioning in general. The problems and factors of the external business environment depressing the overall competitiveness, the key characteristics of its current state are identified, the prospects for development in priority areas of activity are outlined. The problems of the activity of domestic machine-building enterprises are studied, considered from the standpoint of the need to ensure stable competitive positions in world markets. The purpose of the study is to develop and propose directions for improving the formation and implementation of the strategy of innovative development of machine-building enterprises in the conditions of the need to provide it with an entrepreneurial type of production and sales activity. It is necessary to conduct a detailed study of existing problems in the technical and organizational development of domestic enterprises and develop the main directions for their solution, including the formation of a certain investment and innovation environment, business culture and mechanisms for the implementation of research and development results in the industry, taking into account risks. There are those that are associated with the improvement of the algorithm of strategy development at the enterprise level, as well as those that are determined by the state policy of supporting entrepreneurship in relation to innovation in the machine-building complex. The study used economic and statistical methods, time series analysis of the dynamics of key performance indicators of industrial enterprises, a meaningful analysis of cause-and-effect relationships between the phenomena of existing business practices, economics and enterprise management at different levels of hierarchy. Conclusions: in the future, it is necessary to build a comprehensive mechanism for managing the accelerated innovative development of machine-building enterprises on an entrepreneurial basis, coordinating interests of economic entities and higher economic management bodies, based on industrial policy that meets the interests of domestic industrialists and entrepreneurs.
Keywords: entrepreneurship, mechanical engineering, industrial policy, innovation, strategy Highlights:
♦ in a market economy, the formation of an innovative strategy of an enterprise is associated with an increased level of uncertainty, an increase in investment risks and internal instability of the organization due to the implementation of activities whose benefits are not obvious;
♦ they require taking into account the regularities of the innovation process as such, characterized by phasing, multidirection, polysubjectivity, alternation of evolutionary and revolutionary forms, the lack of a close relationship between the amount of funds allocated for research and development, and the success of innovations;
♦ among the priority directions of the state policy improvement aimed at accelerating the innovative development of domestic machine-building enterprises, there is creation of machine-building corporations of a full innovation cycle, ensuring the advanced type of innovative development of large integrated companies in the civil production sector, and others.
|Сведения:||Alexey V. Streltsov, Gennady I. Yakovlev, Samara State University of Economics, Samara, Russia||41|
|Tereshkin S.I., Nefedov A.Yu, Babkin V.A.|
|Using blockchain-based online digital platform for the oil market|
|Abstract. Comprehensive technical development of an Omnidirectional Platform to facilitate instant purchases and sales on the commodity markets (hereinafter - the Omnidirectional Platform) is an imperative and logical step on the way towards effective and safe ecosystem of the digital economy. Various AI and blockchain-based innovative solutions would rejuvenate the digital platform and establish a framework to compete with similar products available on the domestic and global commodity and oil markets. The goal of this paper is to find an innovative solution that would be feasible to integrate with the Omnidirectional Platform. The study is based on the blockchain use case scenarios applied across various companies, and evaluation of their benefits and drawbacks. As a result, we were able to single out a number of innovative solutions that have a potential to become a part of the Omnidirectional Platform. In this context, smart contracts represent the most suitable option in terms of functional and technical capabilities. The outcomes of this study would allow building a theoretical framework to continue investigating the incorporation of smart contracts into the Omnidirectional Platform.
Keywords: oil market, blockchain, digital economy, digital platform, information technology, marketplace, commodity markets, information technology, artificial intelligence, ERP-systems, smart contract
♦ innovative solutions based on blockchain technology used in the activities of domestic and foreign organizations have been studied and analyzed;
♦ the advantages and disadvantages of the practical application of blockchain technology are revealed. Based on these data, innovative solutions suitable for integration into a digital platform for the oil market have been identified;
♦ the conclusion is made about the possibility and expediency of studying the issue of integrating smart contracts into a Multidirectional platform.
|Email:||firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Сведения:||Sergey I. Tereshkin, Aleksander Yu. Nefedov, Oil Resource Group LLC, Moscow, Russia; Vladimir A. Babkin, email@example.com ||51|
|FINANCE, MONETARY CIRCULATION AND CREDIT|
|Budgetary policy of the Russian Federation under COVID-19 pandemic: analysis of problems and prospects|
|Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of the budgetary policy of the Russian Federation in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Its relevance is due to the fact that the current socio-economic situation in the country and in the world, caused by the new coronavirus infection, required a revision of the main priorities of the budget policy at all levels of the budget system. The purpose of this article is to analyze problems of the budgetary policy in Russia and to consider its future prospects. As a result of the analysis, it was revealed that, despite the economic downturn, the key priority of our country in the formation and use of the federal budget remains the achievement of national development goals reflected in national projects and state programs, as well as building up the economic potential of the state. However, the objectives of the budgetary policy have been adjusted in accordance with modern realities.
Keywords: budget, fiscal policy, pandemic, budget expenditures, budget revenues, deficit, national goal, national project, state program
♦ a comparative analysis of the budgetary policy of the Russian Federation in different budget cycles (before and during the COVID-19 pandemic) was carried out;
♦ revealed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the medium-term budget planning process;
♦ the main parameters of the federal budget of the Russian Federation have been analyzed, and their dependence on the socio-economic situation in the country in the context of a pandemic has been determined;
♦ the article investigates problems and prospects of the budgetary policy of the Russian Federation, caused by the epidemiological situation in the country and the fall of the economy, both domestic and global.
|Сведения:||Larisa N. Mulendeeva, Samara State University of Economics, Samara, Russia||60|
|Economic efficiency of payment card system from bank`s point of view: evaluation specificity|
|Abstract. The article is devoted to the study of specific features of collecting and processing financial information in order to assess the effectiveness of a bank`s card payment system. The article discusses the features of estimating income and expenses in projects for the production and sale of card products, as well as the specifics of determining the financial results of such projects. Based on the results of the study, recommendations were developed to optimize the evaluation process. In particular, it is recommended to use traditional methods for evaluating investment projects, but taking into account specific banking risks and the complexity of forecasting financial returns on investment. Special attention in project management in this case is paid to the stages following the implementation stage: completion, maintenance of systems, training of employees, implementation of marketing programs. The assessment of financial indicators of card projects should be carried out as part of a comprehensive analysis of the bank`s activities, examining the relationship of the card payment system with other systems of the bank and evaluating income, expenses and financial results in the context of various activities of the credit institution and various banking products. The proposed approaches to valuation are flexible, adaptable to the conditions of specific banks and can be implemented within the framework of modern automated financial analysis systems. The research is based on a systematic approach. General scientific methods are used: analysis, synthesis, ascent from the abstract to the concrete. The research is based on information from secondary sources, as well as on the author`s personal practical experience. The results of the research can be used in practical activities (in the process of analysis, forecasting and decision-making) by managers of credit organizations that implement projects on the payment card market.
Keywords: payment cards, card payment system of a bank, the card project, the economic efficiency, the costs of the implementation of the card project, the revenues from the implementation of the card project
♦ the article examines the existing approaches to assessing the effectiveness of the bank`s payment card system; in particular, the features of estimating income and expenses in projects for the production and sale of card products, as well as the specifics of determining the financial results of such projects, are considered;
♦ it is recommended to use traditional methods of evaluating investment projects, but taking into account specific banking risks and the complexity of forecasting financial returns on investments;
♦ in this case, special attention in project management is paid to the stages following the implementation stage, such as refinement, maintenance of systems, training of employees, implementation of marketing programs;
♦ the assessment of financial indicators of card projects should be carried out within the framework of a comprehensive analysis of the bank`s activities, examining the relationship of the card payment system with other systems of the bank and assessing income, expenses and financial results in the context of various activities of the credit institution and various banking products;
♦ the proposed approaches to assessment are flexible, adaptable to the conditions of specific banks and implemented within the framework of modern automated financial analysis systems.
|Сведения:||Georgy V. Khetagurov, North-Caucasian Mining and Metallurgical Institute (State Technological University), Vladikavkaz, Russia||69|
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