|Вестник самарского государственного экономического университета
Vestnik of Samara State University of Economics
|2023 №1 (219)
|Structural and institutional factors in the economic growth models|
|Abstract. The article investigates a possibility of including structural and institutional factors in the economic growth models. To do this, we estimate the best Cobb-Douglas functions for the economies of Russia, the USA and China with the addition of these variables. Modern models of the economic growth comprise individual factors of this group, but it is advisable to increase their number by considering political factors and parameters of the transactional sector. The results obtained can also be used to analyze and compare models of the socio-economic development of countries, to improve the economic policy of a state.
Keywords: structural and institutional factors, economic growth, Cobb-Douglas functions, institutional environment, economies of Russia, the USA, China
♦ structural and institutional factors are promising for inclusion in the economic growth models, especially at the current stage of slowing growth in the global and many national economies;
♦ the dynamics of the Russian economy is determined by the development of the transaction sector, especially the trade, to the detriment of the scientific and technological progress (NTP);
♦ the transactional sector of the Russian economy can also easily become the starting point of a crisis, especially it relates to the highly risky and insufficiently regulated Internet technologies of finance and trade.
|Сведения:||Olga S. Demchenko - Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia||9|
|Zhironkin S.A., Taran E.А.|
|Structural obstacles and limitations of the import substitution in the Russian economy in the context of external shocks|
|Abstract. In the context of increasing external shocks, the unresolved problems of the import substitution of recent years have been turning into significant obstacles that hinder the movement towards the technological sovereignty and stable social-and-economic development. The most significant obstacles are the structural problems of the development of the real sector of the Russian economy - technological, reproductive-sectoral, and institutional ones, which have not found their solution throughout the market transformations. To overcome these obstacles and limitations, a reorientation of the structural policy of the state towards achieving success in the import substitution is proposed. The purpose of this study is to identify obstacles and limitations of the import substitution in the Russian economy in the face of external shocks, as well as possible ways to overcome them. To achieve this purpose, methods of structural and comparative analysis, graphical and tabular display of its results, economic and statistical interpretation of data from open official sources of information were used. The results of the study are aimed at creating structural conditions for solving key problems of the import substitution development in the long term, taking into account the prospect of increased external shocks.
Keywords: import substitution, obstacles and limitations, external shocks, economy, structural policy, technological sovereignty
♦ the main obstacles to the development of the import substitution associated with a negative structural shift in the Russian economy during the period of market reforms were identified;
♦ the technological limitations of the import substitution development in the Russian economy were shown;
♦ the institutional traps of the import substitution associated with the growth of the import dependence of the basic sectors of the economy were identified;
♦ the directions of the structural policy focused on the development of the import substitution were formulated.
|Сведения:||Sergey A. Zhironkin, Ekaterina A. Taran - National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia||18|
|Experience of the Republic of Korea in the development of R&D: problems and prospects|
|Abstract. The Republic of Korea has come a long and difficult path in terms of innovations and can rightfully be proud of its success in the scientific field. At the same time, South Korea had to achieve essential results by making significant efforts, using administrative levers in the form of relevant ministries, departments, scientific funds, large-scale investments in R&D, paying close attention to training specialists, as well as transfer of technologies and scientific personnel from abroad, thereby it becomes more important to study its experience and challenges that the country has been facing at the present stage. The author of this article characterizes the scientific and technological policy of South Korea, analyzes the role of corporations in R&D, explores strengths and weaknesses of this policy. In the course of the study, the author used general theoretical methods: analysis, synthesis, induction and deduction. It is concluded that the further innovative development of the Republic of Korea largely depends on whether the country will be able to overcome difficulties in the shortest possible time, in particular, such as a shortage of highly qualified personnel, problems with attracting foreign specialists and training young specialists.
Keywords: R&D, the Republic of Korea, Samsung, science and technology clusters, global innovation index, Internet of Things, cloud-based computing, Big Data
♦ the main advantage of the R&D policy of the Republic of Korea is large-scale financing of innovative projects not only by the state, but also thanks to the financial investments of the South Korean business;
♦ the policy of technology transfer and borrowing the experience of leading innovative countries served as a basis for the further growth of the scientific and technical sphere in the Republic of Korea, but at the same time increased its dependence on license holders, in particular, this was most clearly manifested in the nuclear sector;
♦ the ill-conceived policy of the Republic of Korea on the training of specialists, retention of national and attraction of foreign experts led to negative consequences that affect and will continue to have the most negative impact on the development of R&D in the country.
|Сведения:||Viktoria G. Samsonova - Institute of China and Contemporary Asia of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia||27|
|REGIONAL AND SECTORAL ECONOMY|
|Dadykin V.S., Dadykina O.V., Odinochenkova N.V., Stukanova S.S.|
|Designing a system of geological and economic assessment of prospects of subsurface areas based on the ontology of the subject area and the use of fuzzy logic methods|
|Abstract. Currently, the task of using automated information systems to assess the economic efficiency of subsurface areas is becoming very relevant. This is due to the increasing role of expert information and analytical systems in the structure of software products used in the process of analyzing the results of geological exploration and determining new priorities in the research of mineral resources of solid minerals and groundwater for the needs of the regional economy. The decrease in the number of geologists in this field leads to the need to design a system of geological and economic assessment of the prospects of subsurface areas based on an ontological approach. The application of ontology is designed to reproduce the chain of decision-making by an expert specialist, but in a new view based on associative relationships and empirical rules. In this paper, an attempt is made to build a model of geological and economic assessment based on an ontological approach for the subsequent design of a decision support system using fuzzy logic methods. The research object is the application of the ontological approach and fuzzy logic methods to the analysis. The purpose of this work is to design a system of geological and economic assessment of the prospects of subsurface areas based on the ontology of the subject area and the use of fuzzy logic methods. As a result, a system of geological and economic indicators for assessing the prospects of subsurface areas was developed.
Keywords: ranking of subsurface areas by prospects, fuzzy logic, economic efficiency assessment, integrated economic assessment
♦ an ontological model containing geological and economic indicators for assessing the prospects of subsurface areas allows us to establish a set of factors used to make managerial decisions;
♦ the application of qualitative evaluation factors in the ontological model requires the addition of the model with the rules of fuzzy inference (implication);
♦ the actual assessment of the geological and economic assessment indicators as part of the model makes it possible to rank the objects of the mineral resource base and forecast resources according to the degree of their prospects.
|Email:||Dadykin88@bk.ru; Atamanova_281287@mail.ru; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com|
|Сведения:||Valery S. Dadykin, Olga V. Dadykina, Natalia V. Odinochenkova - Bryansk State Technical University, Bryansk, Russia; Sofya S. Stukanova - National Research University of Electronic Technology, Moscow, Russia||38|
|Non-urbanized territories as an element of economic space: trends and forecast of demographic development|
|Abstract. Ensuring spatial development is one of the strategic tasks for Russia. The solution of this task depends on the effective realization of existing potential, solving problems and removing barriers to the development of not only large and largest urban agglomerations, cities, but also non-urbanized territories. The purpose of the article is to study trends and make a forecast of demographic development of non-urbanized (rural) territories of the European North of Russia. The research object is the non-urbanized (rural) territories of the European North of Russia. In the paper, methods of analysis, synthesis, comparison, economic and statistical analysis are used, population forecasting was conducted using the method of age distribution. It was revealed that the rural areas of the European North in 1990-2021 were characterized by trends of depopulation and migration outflow of the population (primarily of working age). It is established that for the period 2022-2041, a decrease in the rural population of the subjects of the European North is projected in the range from 16.3% to 44.6%. It is determined that negative trends in the demographic development of the non-urbanized (rural) areas, especially geostrategic northern regions, are a threat to the balanced spatial and sustainable socio-economic development of Russia. Measures to reduce the severity of depopulation and migration outflow problems are proposed.
Keywords: economic space, region, European North of Russia, non-urbanized (rural) territories, population, forecast, depopulation, migration outflow
♦ non-urbanized territories ensure a balanced development of the economic space, its connectivity;
♦ rural areas of the European North of Russia were characterized by depopulation trends in 1990-2021, for the period 2022-2041 the continuation of these trends is predicted;
♦ negative trends in the development of the non-urbanized areas, especially geostrategic northern regions, are a threat to the retention of Russia`s economic space.
|Сведения:||Svetlana S. Pastrakova - Vologda Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vologda, Russia||46|
|Sarymova A.A., Guseva M.S.|
|Rural agglomerations as new points of the socio-economic development of the Samara region|
|Abstract. The study presents an analysis of the migration attractiveness of rural areas for the population of the Samara region. A mechanism for the development of rural agglomerations has been proposed: recommendations for the management of rural agglomerations have been developed, and a list of measures has been defined to allow the development of rural agglomerations.
Keywords: rural agglomerations, agglomeration, rural territory, socio-economic development, region Highlights:
♦ trends and specific features of the migration movement of the population of the Samara region are revealed;
♦ advantages of the development of the rural agglomerations are determined, based on which it is possible to regulate the policy of municipal administration to attract the population to the territory of rural agglomerations;
♦ recommendations for the development of rural agglomerations are proposed, including the creation and adoption of a regulatory act, as well as the implementation of an action plan that promotes the development of the rural areas.
|Сведения:||Aliya A. Sarymova, Maria S. Guseva - Samara State University of Economics, Samara, Russia||57|
|MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS MANAGEMENT|
|Svistunov V.M., Lobachev V.V.|
|The impact of global digitalization on intra-organizational changes in the company|
|Abstract. The purpose of this article is a meaningful analysis of current features and trends of the global and domestic labor markets in the conditions of the total digitalization, intra-organizational changes that are a reaction of a company management to the processes of digitalization. The processes of active development and large-scale application of digital technologies today are a global trend for almost all countries of the world. At the same time, according to the expert opinion, serious technological and economic development based on the digitalization processes cannot but have a significant impact on the structural changes taking place both in the global and national labor markets and at individual companies. Thus, according to the authors, the widespread use of digital technologies creates conditions for the transition of the company management from a reactive model to a proactive management model when performing their managerial functions. No less important is another trend noted by a significant number of management personnel of modern companies in the processes of assessing the quality of their work - the absence or serious decrease in the level of their creativity, which significantly affects the content and attractiveness of the labor process. Therefore, at companies, where the level of digitalization of business processes is quite high, many employees feel a decrease in their satisfaction with the professional activities. The authors conclude that the elimination of negative consequences of digitalization is possible when the company`s management is ready and able to plan and successfully implement a set of effective measures.
Keywords: IT specialist, management model, profession, employee, labor market, labor content, trend, employment, digital technologies
♦ the results of the analysis of modern features and key prospects of the professional world and domestic labor markets in the conditions of the total digitalization are presented;
♦ the need to apply to the content of work, in conditions of large-scale introduction of digital technologies, strict regulation based on the principles and protocols of automation, is increasingly becoming not only the cause of a negative tendency to reduce the motivation among staff, but also provokes the development of processes of both psychological and social alienation of employees of the company;
♦ given the current trends in the development of digitalization processes, it is important for the top management of companies to be not only ready, but also able to plan and successfully implement a set of effective measures aimed at eliminating the negative consequences of digitalization as soon as possible (reducing creativity, content and attractiveness of managerial work, as well as the satisfaction level of management personnel with the results of their professional activities, etc.).
|Сведения:||Vasily M. Svistunov, Vitaly V. Lobachev - State University of Management, Moscow, Russia||67|
|FINANCE, MONEY CIRCULATION AND CREDIT|
|Market instruments and sources of financing the deficit of the federal budget of the Russian Federation in the context of digitalization|
|Abstract. In the conditions of the economic instability and the introduction of external sanctions, the issues of balancing the federal budget are becoming particularly relevant. The purpose of the study is to find possible ways to use market instruments that can be implemented mainly in the domestic market to attract financial and credit resources and cover the budget deficit, this will minimize the expenditure of the National Welfare Fund and at the same time use resources of the business sector. It is proposed to issue long-term federal loan obligations that are accepted, as the maturity dates come, offsetting tax and other mandatory payments. The advantages of this market instrument in comparison with the monetary issue are substantiated.
Keywords: federal budget, budget deficit, budget revenues, taxes, tax administration, budget expenditures, internal and external public debt, federal loan bonds, financial control
♦ the structure and dynamics of federal budget revenues are studied, the reduction of budget dependence on oil and gas revenues is shown;
♦ the main problems of filling the federal budget in 2023 have been identified;
♦ the use of long-term financial instruments in the domestic market for the budget balance is proposed and justified.
|Сведения:||Artem K. Zubkov - Samara State University of Economics, Samara, Russia||78|
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