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Вестник самарского государственного экономического университета
Vestnik of Samara State University of Economics
2020 №6 (188)
The article analyzes the dependence of the living standard of the population in the countries on the level of economic security that is currently provided in these countries. The relevance of the study is due to the theoretical and practical value of raising the living standard of the population for the prosperity and welfare of people, and occurrence in the theory of economic security trends to considering raising the level of population living standard as a way of ensuring economic security, which is contradict to the basic provisions of the economic security theory. A model of interdependence level of economic security and living standards of the population was developed on the basis of statistical data analysis on major economic indexes of different countries. The analysis of the dependence of the population’s living standard on the level of economic security for individual countries in the main regions of the world is carried out. It is established that there is a direct correlation between these indicators, which is approaching a direct relationship with the increase in the level of economic development of countries. An empirical coefficient reflecting the studied dependence is suggested for use, and based on calculations and analysis of statistical data from individual states, its approximate constant value is calculated for the current time, taking into account existing socio-economic conditions.
Keywords:economic security, economic well-being, economic prosperity, living standard of the population, global competitiveness, human development index, developed economy, developing economy, theory of economic security, economic policy of the state. Highlights: ♦ the question on the dependence of the population’s living standard on the level of economic security is analyzed; ♦ a comparative analysis of the interdependence of these indicators for individual countries is carried out; ♦ the type of existing dependence is established and the assumption is made about the factors affecting this dependence.
Сведения:Nadezhda Yu. Blinichkina, Candidate of Economics, Tajikistan State University of Law, Business & Politics, Khujand, Republic of Tajikistan.
Based on the specific role that agriculture plays in the socio-economic development of the country, regardless of time and space, an attempt is made to analyze the commodity structure of US agricultural production over a long time period in order to identify trends that characterize the dynamics of this structure, reflecting changes in the national system of market implementation of major agricultural products. We used historical, abstract-logical, statistical-economic research methods. The theoretical basis of the study is the cost of agricultural products produced and implemented in the market by American farmers, which is used to determine the structure of US agricultural production at various intervals of the time period that is interesting for us. The results of the study reveal the complex nature of the dynamics of the agricultural production commodity structure in the United States for the period 1929-2019. The dependence of this dynamics, first of all, on the market demand for certain types of agricultural products in different time periods is justified. In addition to the market consumer factor caused by aggregate demand, the impact on the structure of agricultural production of several factors related to active direct government regulation of the production and implementation of certain types of agricultural products by American farmers, scientific and technological capabilities (primarily in the field of biotechnology and genetic engineering), which determine the level of certain sectors of agriculture development in the country.
Keywords:commodity structure of US agricultural production, dynamics of the commodity structure of US agricultural production, US farms, market sales of agricultural products, farm incomes, US crop production product profile, US livestock product profile, total demand for agricultural products. Highlights: ♦ structural changes in the product profile of American crop production have been identified, where a steady decline of the cereals (both food and feed) has been observed over the studied time period, with a gradual increase of soy and other oil cereals, as well as vegetable products, fruits and nuts in American commodity production; ♦ it is established that since the post-war period, and especially since the 1990s, oil cereals play an increasing role in the structure of commodity production in the United States, among which the leading place belongs to soy, which is associated with the expansion of the product range of soy foods, waste-free production based on soy, low costs, and therefore additional benefits in the implementation of products by American farmers, arising in the framework of global competition in the world market of agricultural producers; ♦ the dynamics of the commodity structure of American livestock is revealed, reflecting the gradual shift of its product profile from the breeding of cattle (dairy and meat directions), which dominated for 70 years (1929-1999), i.e. up to the beginning of this century, in favor of poultry products, with which the market is currently divided almost equally; ♦ the complex nature of the dynamics of the commodity structure of US agricultural production for the period 1929-2019 is shown. The dependence of this dynamics on such factors as the aggregate market demand for certain types of agricultural products in different time periods, active direct state regulation of farm production and sales of certain types of agricultural products, scientific and technological opportunities that determine the level of development of the leading branches of national agriculture is shown.
Email:minat.valera@yandex.ru, chepik56@inbox.ru
Сведения:Valerij N. Minat, Candidate of Geography, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Economics and Management Department of the Ryazan State Agrotechnological University by P.A. Kostychev; Anatolij G. Chepik, Doctor of Economics, Associate Professor, Professor of the National Economy and Regional Development Department of the Ryazan State University named for S.A. Yesenin.
The purpose of the study is to assess the prerequisites and prospects for the development of transnational corporations (TNCs) in Russia and the Samara region. The argument is based on such methodological principles and methods as the principle of duality of the economic nature of economic entities, methods of system and institutional analysis. The article analyzes the prerequisites and reasons for the emergence of Russian TNCs. The author’s understanding of the problems and prospects of development of the transnationalization process in Russia is offered. The activity of foreign TNCs in the Samara region is analyzed. Several recommendations for further effective development of Russian TNCs are proposed.
Keywords: features of transnationalization in Russia, prerequisites for the emergence of Russian TNCs, foreign TNCs in the Samara region, prospects of the development of Russian TNCs. Highlights: ♦ political and economic analysis of the reasons for the emergence of Russian TNCs is carried out; ♦ the author’s understanding of the problems and prospects of development of Russian TNCs is offered; ♦ the activity of foreign TNCs in the Samara region is analyzed.
Сведения:Vladimir A. Noskov, Doctor of Economics, Professor Samara State University of Economics.
The presence of inter-territorial contrasts has a significant impact on the current and future development of the region, including the efficiency of its economy. Domestic and foreign experience shows that the process of softening inter-territorial contrasts is long-lasting. One of the documents that determine the development of the region over a long period of time is its strategy. This research is devoted to the characterization of regional strategies as tools for implementing policies aimed at mitigating inter-territorial contrasts. The author investigates the hypothesis that there is a relationship between the strategic vision of the territory’s development and the dynamics of changes in its inherent intermunicipal contrasts. To test the hypothesis, the strategies of the regions that include the Ural Federal district were evaluated using the questionnaire developed by the author, and the values of the coefficient of center-peripheral differences were calculated. The content of the concept “interterritorial contrasts” is clarified, its connection with the term “territorial differentiation” is shown. According to the results of the study, a partial confirmation of the hypothesis was made. It is shown that regional strategies can become effective tools for mitigating inter-territorial contrasts. The results of the research can be used in the preparation of federal guidelines for the development of regional strategies, updating strategic planning documents of the Russian Federation subjects, and forming appropriate regional policies.
Keywords: region, regional economy, strategy, strategic planning, center-periphery, asymmetry of socio-economic development, interterritorial contrasts, center-peripheral differences. Highlights: ♦ interterritorial contrasts can be analyzed as an extreme case of territorial differentiation. The review of scientific literature has allowed us to distinguish three types of interterritorial contrasts: contrasts on the line “center-periphery”, contrasts on the line “North - South”, asymmetry of socio-economic development; ♦ the problem of inter-territorial contrasts in the development of regions is reflected in almost all strategies of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation that are part of the Ural Federal district. The exception are documents approved before the adoption of Federal law No. 172-FL of 28.06.2014 “On strategic planning in the Russian Federation”; ♦ it is shown that in a number of regions whose strategies contain provisions related to the problem of interterritorial contrasts, these contrasts were mitigated in the period from 2014 to 2019. In regions where such provisions did not exist, interterritorial contrasts increased.
Сведения:Ekaterina I. Kajbicheva, Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor of the Regional, Municipal Economics and Management Department of the Ural State University of Economics, Yekaterinburg.
The article analyzes the characteristics of the development potential of higher education institutions, which is an important component of the justification of management decisions related to changes. The purpose of the study presented in this article is to substantiate the criteria parameters of the development potential of an educational organization of higher education. The research is based on the hypothesis that the characteristics of sustainable development of the university can be considered as the changes strategic goals. The study methodology is based on the concept of sustainable development of socio-economic systems, methods of system analysis and expert assessments. To assess the development potential, we use the characteristics of innovation, human resources and management information support by applying the method of expert evaluation using an interval scale. Assessment of the development potential of an educational organization of higher education during changes is one of the elements of the methodological basis for the formation of change modeling programs aimed at improving the sustainability of higher education institutions.
Keywords: educational organizations of higher education, development potential, sustainable development, potential opportunities for innovation, human resources potential, information security potential of management. Highlights: ♦ the potential of a socio-economic system is defined as its ability to ensure its long-term functioning and achieve strategic goals with a given resource provision, while the overall achievement of the organization’s key goals is defined as ensuring its sustainable development; ♦ as criteria for evaluating the potential of university development through changes, the characteristics of its sustainable development can be analyzed, evaluated through three subsystems of indicators: the potential of innovation activity, human resources and information security potential of management; ♦ the potential of innovative activity of an educational organization can be characterized by the following indicators: the speed and depth of updating educational programs, the level of grant activity, the level of development of innovative infrastructure and the level of use of the project approach to management; ♦ it is suggested to characterize the human resources potential by means of the following indicators: the level of qualification of scientific, pedagogical and administrative employees, the level of employee involvement in project activities, and the level of employee motivation; ♦ to assess the potential of information security of management, it is suggested to use such indicators as the information capacity of the organization, the level of development of the unified information space and the quality of information support for management activities.
Сведения:Elena A. Kandrashina, Doctor of Economics, Professor of Samara State University of Economics.
In the context of declining profitability of companies, it is necessary to assess their financial condition. The level of debt burden formed in the past puts pressure on the financial performance of companies at the present time. The source of repayment of borrowed capital is primarily income from the main activity of the borrower, and not cash flow from the project or property. In this context, assets pledged as collateral mitigate risks and are a secondary source of debt repayment. Therefore, companies need to have an optimal and stable level of income in order to be financially stable. In this regard, it is necessary to analyze the extent to which companies are able to service their debt obligations. Along with the basic indicators, it is proposed to analyze an adjusted indicator of the interest coverage ratio, which is based on the profit for the company’s core business, not including other income.
Keywords: “zombie company”, creditworthiness, debt capital market, consumer industry, monetary policy. Highlights: ♦ a sample analysis of consumer industry companies was conducted; ♦ conclusions are made about the presence of the industry’s credited companies; ♦ the reasons for the need to analyze the interest coverage ratio (ICR); ♦ recommendations for improving the ICR indicator for companies are presented.
Email: stepkor@inbox.ru
Сведения:Stepan Yu. Korovin, Post-graduate student of the The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (Ranepa), Moscow.
The agricultural sector of the Russian Federation has achieved significant progress in implementing the national import substitution program. Nowadays, the threshold for food security has been reached for all major commodity groups, with the exception of milk and dairy products. At the same time, the overall stability of the Russian agro-industrial complex to external influences remains insufficient, primarily due to the high level of dependence on imported supplies of material and technical resources, including seed material. Ensuring the stable development of crop production in Russia is impossible without solving the problem of reducing dependence on imported seed material. The study presents a dynamic and structural analysis of the dependence of the Russian agro-industrial complex on the supply of foreign varieties and hybrids of agricultural plants. A critical assessment of existing state support measures aimed at the development of domestic breeding is given. Special attention is paid to the need of ensuring coordination of actions and multiplication of efforts of all participants in the selection and seed-growing process. The implementation of the recommendations suggested in the article will allow for the accelerated replacement of foreign seed material in production crops with domestic selection achievements without reducing the volume of crop production.
Keywords: selection, seed production, import substitution, agro-industrial complex, innovation activity, federal scientific and technical program, state support, public-private partnership. Highlights: ♦ the Russian seed market is largely dependent on imported supplies, for some crops (sugar beet, sunflower, corn, potatoes, rape), this dependence is now critical, which directly affects the country’s sustainable food security in the long term; ♦ the Federal scientific and technical program is aimed at creating new competitive domestic varieties and hybrids, but its implementation is currently fraught with significant difficulties, which increases the risks of not achieving the targets set in it; ♦ the priority direction for the development of high-quality seed material in our country is the use of cluster approach tools, the main of which are the development and implementation of public-private partnership projects based on existing scientific institutions, as well as more active involvement of leading foreign companies to work in the Russian Federation.
Сведения:Roman V. Nekrasov, Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor of the Economics and Organization of Agro-industrial Production Department of the Samara State University of Economics.
The use of different models in logistics activities is due to the fact that the main tasks of logistics in general are related to optimization. Analyzing the problematics of logistics processes in general, there are many questions related to the construction of optimal routes, optimization of order time, and analysis of flow processes of various nature. The purpose of the study is to identify and generalize methods of graph theory and network modeling with the possibility of using them in various logistics processes. The research methods used in this article include a theoretical aspect. This is a sign simulation that contains formulas and graphs that describe logistics processes. These are analysis and synthesis, which are associated with a systematic approach to the study of any functional areas of logistics. This is also a generalization of the obtained results in order to extend it to other areas of logistics. The generalization is based on the methods of synthesis and analysis. We should mention mathematical modeling as the basis of graph theory and network modeling. As a result of the research, we can conclude that many aspects, concepts, methods of graph theory and network modeling can be applied in almost all functional areas of logistics. In this regard, the use of appropriate methods and modeling can help in answering many questions related to logistics activities.
Keywords: logistics, flow processes, graph theory, network modeling, optimization, routing, transportation, procurements, information flows. Highlights: ♦ the main aspects of graph theory and network modeling for use in logistics processes are highlighted; ♦ mechanisms for optimizing logistics processes using graph theory and network modeling are generalized; ♦ recommendations for managing traffic flow on the example of a city network are offered.
Сведения:Elena V. Shvetsova, Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor of the Marketing, Logistics and Advertising Department at Samara State University of Economics.
The article analyzes the development of the marketing concept in relation to the internal client. The authors investigate the problem of the importance of personnel as steakholders based on the analysis of social policy of companies. The purpose of the study is to identify the prerequisites for implementing the concept of internal marketing in the corporate strategy. The research is based on the use of data published by companies in the form of social and integrated reports, and data obtained by a survey of a sample of small and medium-sized businesses. The results of the study showed that despite the weak interest of business in developing internal customer engagement programs, the prerequisites for implementing the concept of internal marketing have been formed in recently.
Keywords: internal marketing, corporate social responsibility, social and ethical marketing, social investment. Highlights: ♦ theoretical approaches to the development of the concept of internal marketing are defined; ♦ an assessment of the structural components of the corporate policy of business focused on personnel is given; ♦ the directions of transformation of the corporate environment based on the concept of internal marketing are defined.
Email:rinadoo@yahoo.com, agaff@mail.ru
Сведения:Irina V. Yakhneeva, Doctor of Economics, Associate Professor, Professor of the Marketing, Logistics and Advertising Department; Anna N. Agafonova, Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Marketing, Logistics and Advertising Department - Samara State University of Economics.
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