|Вестник самарского государственного экономического университета
Vestnik of Samara State University of Economics
|2021 №4 (198)
|DYNAMICS OF HEALTHCARE DEVELOPMENT IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA|
|The novelty of the work is seen in the combination of theoretical and comparative historical analysis with the cyclical socio-economic development of American society, in relation to the subject of this study - the evolution of US healthcare. The identification and justification of trends in the evolution of American healthcare in terms of ensuring the effectiveness, safety, quality and availability of medical services is based on the traditional methodological basis of statistical and economic analysis of the average annual growth of the main indicators of the development of American healthcare during the formation of its modern institutional, managerial and organizational-functional structure in 1951-2020. The results reflect the general direction of the evolution of US healthcare as a haphazard complex mechanism that functions in direct resonance with the socio-economic cycle.
Keywords: US healthcare, healthcare efficiency, quality and availability of medical services, theoretical and comparative historical analysis, cyclical socio-economic development of the United States, relevant market of medical services, health insurance, potential and real healthcare resources.
♦ an empirical analysis of the dynamics of indicators of long-term development of US healthcare is carried out, revealing the results of its development in 1951-2020 within the framework of the concept of free market relations in the relevant market of medical goods and services;
♦ trends in the development of US healthcare in the context of extreme commercialization of medicine and patients ` insurance dependence on market conditions with weak state regulation are identified and justified, revealing the generally inefficient and extremely inaccessible nature of providing full-fledged medical services to the country`s population.
|Сведения:||Valery N. Minat, Candidate of Geography, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Economics and Management of the Ryazan State Agrotechnological University Named after P.A. Kostychev.||9|
|Tereshkin S.I., Nefedov A.Yu., Babkin V.A.|
|DIGITAL PLATFORMS FOR THE OIL MARKET IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ABROAD|
|Digitalization of the economic system of the Russian Federation is a natural process dictated by modern requirements for the development of the international market of goods and services. The widespread adoption of digital technologies will reduce the costs of the production process, as well as spend less time on obtaining a unit of production or on providing a service. The purpose of this study is to identify the advantages and disadvantages of digital platforms for the oil market. The research is based on the analysis of digital platforms developed by vertically integrated oil companies and other legal entities. As a result of the conducted research, it was revealed that the existing digital platforms differ in their functional purpose: some allow to optimize and control all stages of the production process; others are platforms for the implementation of various software solutions for the oil industry; others are an ecosystem designed for the purchase and sale of various product categories. The results obtained allow us to conclude that the oil market is in a favorable position for the development of a modern digital platform that takes into account the advantages and disadvantages of analogues, as well as creating its own ecosystem.
Keywords: oil market, digital economy, digital platforms, information technologies, production process, marketplace, commodity markets.
♦ solutions for the development of digital platforms in the Russian Federation and abroad are studied. 8 digital platforms for the oil market, which are in full operation mode, were identified and analyzed;
♦ advantages and disadvantages of digital platforms for the oil market are revealed;
♦ the conclusion is made about the feasibility of developing a modern digital platform for the oil market, taking into account the existing shortcomings of Russian and foreign analogues.
|Email:||email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com|
|Сведения:||Sergey I. Tereshkin, General Director of LLC Oil Resource Group.; Alexander Yu. Nefedov, Technical Director of LLC Oil Resource Group.; Vladimir A. Babkin, Candidate of Economics, R&D specialist, LLC ORG-Market.||17|
|ECONOMICS, ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATIONS, BRANCHES, COMPLEXES|
|SHORT-TERM CALCULATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF RETAIL REVERSE LOGISTICS SYSTEMS|
|The current market environment of retail trade enterprises indicates the need for accounting and management of reverse logistics, regardless of the size of the retailer. In 2020, only in the United States, retailers` losses from product returns amounted to about 400 billion dollars. More liberal return policies and a growing online sales market lead to more returned products and an increase in the volume of losses from returns, and it seems possible to believe that these trends will continue in the coming years, which indicates the need for retailers to have a way to assess the economical effectiveness of their systematic interaction with return flows in order to make management decisions on an objective and reliable information basis.
Keywords: retail, reverse logistics, economic efficiency, retail trade.
♦ the concept of a critical point of return is proposed, which determines the situation where a retailer needs a reverse logistics system;
♦ the need for retailers to evaluate reverse logistics in order to maintain a competitive advantage in the current market conditions is determined;
♦ an NPV-based framework is considered as a way to calculate the economic efficiency of reverse logistics systems.
|Сведения:||Ruslan M. Beysenbaev, Post-graduate student of the Ural State University of Economics, Yekaterinburg.||24|
|Zhabin A.P., Volkodavova E.V.|
|ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND LABOUR IN RELATION OF NEW EDITION OF THE NATIONAL GOALS|
|The article considers the correlation between the national goals set by the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 474 of 21.07.2020 and the key initiatives in the areas defined in the developed strategy of socio-economic development of the Russian Federation. The national goal, designated as "decent, effective labour and successful entrepreneurship", is particularly highlighted. The article reveals the multi-layered content of this goal, its connection with other components of the system of national goals and with the key initiatives of the developed strategy. It analyzes the problems of practical implementation of a set of measures implemented in the regions of the Russian Federation to support the development of entrepreneurship, puts forward and justifies proposals for improving federal and regional support practices.
Keywords: entrepreneurship, national goals, work of an entrepreneur, entrepreneurial competencies, training of entrepreneurs, entrepreneurial university.
♦ the definition of entrepreneurial activity given in the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 474 of 21.07.2020 is essential for a new understanding of the essence of this economic phenomenon. Entrepreneurship, considered as a national goal for the period up to 2030, is connected in this understanding with the theme of decent and effective work, and this connection is of great theoretical and practical importance;
♦ entrepreneurship as a special type of work activity requires fundamental professional training. This leads to the requirements for filling the educational programs in universities, and new formats of their work. The creation of entrepreneurial universities is on the agenda of higher education reform;
♦ entrepreneurship should be considered not only as a specific type of labor activity, but also as an element of other types of labor activity. A relevant topic in this regard is the inclusion of ordinary employees in various forms in the management process;
♦ the study conducted by the authors showed the complexity of this process, due to the need to form a new organizational culture. The goal of this formation is the achievement by 2030 in the Russian labor sphere of a state that could be qualified as "decent, effective labour and successful entrepreneurship".
|Сведения:||Alexander P. Zhabin, Doctor of Economics, Professor, Head of the Department of Management.; Elena V. Volkodavova, Doctor of Economics, Professor, Professor of the Department of Management. - Samara State University of Economics.||32|
|ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN CAPITAL LEVEL USING THE UPGRADED HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX|
|This article discusses the measurement of human capital using an indirect method of evaluation -the Human Development Index (HDI). Each year, UNDP experts present the HDI in Human development reports. The problem of improving the human development index is presented and solved by introducing new components in its structure - the unemployment index and the wage index. The aim of the study is to test the results of the modernized human development index on the example of the subjects of the Russian Federation. The key research methods are synthesis and comparative analysis, with the help of which the structure of the index is analyzed in detail; the method of selecting and processing a statistical database is applied; the graphical method is used to construct illustrative material, as well as the empirical method of research. The article presents the rating of Russian regions, compiled on the basis of the improved human development index. A comparative analysis of two methods of calculating the index is carried out - the UNDP method and the author`s method. Two methods of calculating the human development index are also analyzed in detail, their method is analyzed. It is clearly shown what changes occurred in the formulas for calculating the main indicators included in the structure of the human development index.
Keywords: human capital, human development, human development index, unemployment rate, education level, education index, longevity index, income index.
♦ the analysis of the main methodology for calculating the human development index, namely, a comparative analysis of two options for calculating the index: the first, which was used by UNDP until 2010, and the second, which is used from 2011 to the present;
♦ the author`s method for calculating the human development index is proposed, namely, the method of its modernization by introducing new components into the final formula - the wage index and the unemployment index; the choice of these indicators (the level of unemployment and wages) is explained in detail;
♦ a comparative analysis of the formulas for calculating the sub-indices included in the human development index is carried out, the author`s approach and the approach of the UNDP are considered;
♦ the final stage was the testing of the obtained index on the regions of Russia, the rating of the regions was compiled, and the dynamic development of the HDI for the period from 2010 to 2018 was demonstrated.
|Сведения:||Regina P. Yakunina, Candidate of the Department of Logistics and Management of the Kazan National Research Technological University.||38|
|FINANCE, MONETARY CIRCULATION AND CREDIT|
|DEVELOPMENT OF A METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING THE FINANCIAL SECURITY OF SPECIALIZED DEVELOPERS|
|One of the key tasks in the housing construction market is to ensure the reliability of the developer. The transition to the project financing mechanism requires specialized developers to comply with financial stability within the established standards. In modern economic conditions, to disclose the financial position of a company in the construction industry, a more comprehensive analysis is needed, including not only indicators of financial stability. The author adapted the financial security assessment model based on the indicator approach for specialized developers. The information base was the data of the portal of the Unified Register of developers, taking into account a specific territory (Bryansk region). The formulated and tested model made it possible to assess the financial security of the largest enterprises of the construction industry in the region, draw appropriate conclusions and offer management solutions within the framework of issues of various indicators.
Keywords: financial security of construction industry enterprises, threats to the financial security of specialized developers` enterprises, financial security indicators.
♦ the indicator approach for determining the financial security of specialized developers is justified;
♦ the analysis of the financial security of regional specialized developers is carried out;
♦ the problem areas of management of the construction industry entities are identified;
♦ the directions of strengthening financial stability and achieving financial security are proposed.
|Сведения:||Victoria N. Kosyanova, Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor of the Department of Public Administration, Economic and Information Security of the Bryansk State University of Engineering and Technology.||47|
|THE ROLE OF FINANCIAL RISK IN MANAGING THE CAPITAL STRUCTURE AND PERFORMANCE OF RUSSIAN COMPANIES|
|Issues related to the formation and optimization of the capital structure are an important component of the company`s financial management system. The effectiveness of decisions depends on external and internal factors that affect the financial activities of the company, including financial risk. The article reveals the concept of financial risk and assesses its role in the analysis of the relationship between the capital structure and profitability indicators. It is established that the negative impact of the level of debt in the capital structure on the return on assets weakens as the financial risk increases, measured in terms of current liquidity coefficients and interest coverage. An increase in the debt burden leads to an increase in the return on equity when the company has enough funds to service the debt and the revenue variation is at an average level.
Keywords: capital structure, financial leverage, financial risk, return on assets, return on equity. Highlights:
♦ financial risk can be measured in different ways depending on whether the assessment is carried out by investors, shareholders or company managers;
♦ the nature of the impact of capital structure decisions on the company`s performance depends on the current level of financial risk;
♦ building up the share of debt financing in the capital structure leads to a reduction in the return on assets; with an increase in revenue variation, the negative impact increases; with a decrease in the values of liquidity coefficients and interest coverage, it decreases;
♦ if the financial opportunities of the company are sufficient to service the debt, and the revenue variation is at an average level, then it is profitable for it to increase the share of borrowed capital, as this will lead to an increase in the return on equity.
|Сведения:||Galina A. Nekrasova, Senior Lecturer, Pitirim Sorokin Syktyvkar State University.||56|
|STATE SUPPORT OF ORGANIZATIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF OVERCOMING THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE 2020 PANDEMIC IN RUSSIA|
|The purpose of the study is to justify the need for state financial support of organizations affected by the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic in Russia, to disclose its content, to assess the timeliness and sufficiency of the measures taken, to determine the directions for further improvement of these measures in order to overcome the negative consequences and have a positive impact on the economy.
Keywords: Russian economy, global crisis, strategic organizations, system-forming organizations, subsidies from the federal budget, state guarantees, credit holidays, tax holidays, working capital loans, interest-free loans, National Welfare Fund.
♦ the assessment of the impact of the global crisis on the state of the Russian economy is given according to the following key indicators: the decline in the national currency, the reduction in the number of operating organizations, a drop in the GDP;
♦ the main measures taken by the federal government in order to support Russian organizations and the most affected industries are systematized and analyzed;
♦ the ways of using the resources of the National Welfare Fund (NWF) to minimize the negative financial consequences of the global crisis, including direct subsidizing, crediting for working capital replenishment and grant financing of organizations, are proposed.
|Сведения:||Oleg A. Khvostenko, Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Finance and Credit of the Samara State University of Economics.||62|
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