|Вестник самарского государственного экономического университета
Vestnik of Samara State University of Economics
|2018 №1 (159)
|THEORY OF ECONOMICS |
|THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO RESEARCH OF THE NATURE AND ESSENCE OF MONEY|
|At present, the monetary economy is undergoing a serious transformation, caused by numerous factors of both endogenous and exogenous character. The world community faces a serious task related to the need for further regulation of monetary relations, which is especially important in the era of their virtualization. Despite the emergence of new forms of money, they still remain the organizing means of the reproduction process, acting as a system-forming factor in the economic relations of modern society. Consistent partici-pation of money in all stages of the reproductive process makes it possible to characterize them as a multi-faceted scientific category with a wide range of essential characteristics. Despite of some developed provi-sions of the theory of money, there are questions of the genesis and essence of money, the relevance of its functions to the current conditions for the development of money circulation, etc. The aim of the study is to identify the nature and essence of money through basic approaches and concepts of economic science. Within the framework of the research, dialectical, systemic, institutional, evolutionary methods of scien-tific cognition are used. According to conclusions, firstly, it is necessary to abandon monistic understand-ing of the nature of money, which is possible only when using the principle of methodological pluralism in studying their genesis; secondly, in the study of the essence of money, it is necessary to distinguish two categories: material and non-material, which is especially important in the modern era of virtualization of monetary units.
Keywords: money, money circulation, functions of money, goods, institution, money relations, institu-tional relations, essence of money.
• the high scientific interest in the category of money is due to its variety, duality, and contradictory nature of individual manifestations, which makes it possible to characterize them as a kind of continuum in which objects with varying degrees of liquidity and with different values gradually pass into each other;
• analyzing directly the phenomenon of money, it is necessary to distinguish directly epistemological prob-lems associated with the study of its nature, and to identify the characteristics of this phenomenon, reflect-ing its essence;
• Ё legal) and evolutionary;
• the study of the essence of money is possible as a result of using the following theoretical approaches: con-ventional, functional, reproductive, institutional and information;
• synthesizing numerous aspects of the study of the essence of money, it can be noted that the category of money is inherent in duality: on the one hand, money is the result of the social development of society, mentality, practice, tradition, trust, on the other, it is the product of the material sphere, the result of the development of commodity production, exchange, fixed by the corresponding institutions of the state.
|Сведения:||Konstantin Yu. Surikov, Candidate of Economics, Manager of the Department for the Samara region of the Volga-Vyatka Central Department of the Central Bank of Russia.||9|
|WORLD ECONOMY |
|MODULARITY OF RECEIVING DIRECT FOREIGN INVESTMENTS IN NIGERIA: SECURITY OF ECONOMIC GROWTH|
|In Africa, few countries have a huge economic potential. Nigeria is one of such countries, which is rich in natural and human resources. Nigeria is considered the fifth major producer of crude oil in the Or-ganization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and has many mineral deposits. It is against this backdrop that Nigeria is implementing measures to institutionalize investment and encourage foreign direct in-vestment in the country. State institutions and investment promotion agencies contribute to improve the investment climate and their flow into the country as a potential source of financing for develop-ment and economic growth. Formation and foreign economic expansion of multinational enterprises, accompanied by the movement of FDI, is an important component of globalization in the world econ-omy. Under current conditions, investors are strongly influenced by the institutional environment in the host countries. These agencies allow foreign investors to obtain necessary information about ad-vantageous opportunities and inform about regulatory procedures in the economy of developing coun-tries. The Government of Nigeria, by facilitating the attraction of FDI, provides itself with good pre-requisites for economic growth in the future.
Keywords: institutional environment, foreign direct investment (FDI), ECOWAS, Africa, Nigeria.
• foreign direct investment is the driving force of technical progress, development of the industrial sector, economic diversification and economic growth;
• institutional transformation plays an important role in attracting FDI, which is a consequence of improv-ing the investment climate;
• economic growth is a consequence of the efforts made by developing countries in Africa, including the deepening of regional integration.
|Сведения:||Denis V. Fogel, a junior research scientist, Center for Global and Strategic Studies, Institute of Africa, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.||16|
|ECONOMICS, ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONS, BRANCHES, COMPLEXES|
|Popkov V.P., Aminov Kh.I.|
|CONCEPTUAL SCHEME AND GENESIS OF ENTERPRISE INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT|
|Infrastructure along with the institutes of innovation and investment is one of the most important factors creating and ensuring the effective development of the economy. Infrastructure in different historical peri-ods had corresponding to that time content. At different stages of the evolution of the concept of “infra-structure” scientists used mainly one of its components. Infrastructure should be analyzed from two sides: a) by three significant economic activities: market, entrepreneurial and innovative; b) by branches and spheres of the economy (industry, agriculture, construction, trade, transport, education, health, tourism, etc.). Proceeding from the foregoing, the definition of infrastructure of entrepreneurial activities is provid-ed, which includes a set of public, state and private institutions (firms, associations, institutions, clusters, etc.) that promote the development of all types of entrepreneurial activities. Under entrepreneurship, the authors understand economically active, proactive activities of a person or a group of people using innovative technologies and objects as means and objects of labor in order to systematically obtain economic benefits. The conceptual scheme of the business infrastructure that facilitates the effective development of entrepreneurial activity is proposed, covering practically all market structures: industrial, construction, agricultural, trade, education, etc. A special place is given to clusters, which create a favorable climate for effective entrepreneurial activities.
Keywords: entrepreneurship, business infrastructure, conceptual scheme, clusters.
• a new view on the infrastructure of entrepreneurship as an important institution for economic development;
• a conceptual framework for the business infrastructure has been developed;
• clusters are identified as one of the main elements of the business infrastructure.
|Email:||email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, |
|Сведения:||Valery P. Popkov, Doctor of Economics, Professor; Khakimjon I. Aminov, Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor - St. Petersburg State University of Economics.||24|
|ACCOUNTING, STATISTICS |
|ANALYSIS AND FORECAST ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL INVESTMENTS IN THE MAIN CAPITAL IN RUSSIA|
|The relevance of the chosen research topic is urgent since there is the need to implement a forecast estimate of investment in fixed assets aimed at implementing environmental protection measures, since only in conditions of a favorable investment environment it is possible to increase the competitiveness of regions, based on main-taining their economic stability and improving environmental safety. The purpose of the study is to analyze the time series and carry out a forecast estimate of investments in fixed assets, designed for environmental protec-tion and rational use of natural resources. The system and complex approaches, as well as statistical research methods, are used: statistical analysis methods, tabular and graphical methods, predictive method based on the trend model, methods for testing the quality of developed models based on statistical criteria of Student’s, Fisher’s, Durbin-Watson’s tests and others. The scientific novelty (originality) of the research is the formation of the information-methodical approach to the analysis of environmental investment in fixed assets and to their projected assessment for the period 2017-2018. The obtained results can serve as a foundation for the devel-opment of federal and territorial programs, as well as for the implementation of managerial decisions of the authorities at different levels in the sphere of socio-ecological and economic development.
Keywords: environmental investments, investment forecasting, quality of models.
• a dynamic approach to the measurement and analysis of environmental protection investment in fixed assets at the federal level is carried out;
• investment forecasting in fixed assets aimed at protecting the environment and rational use of natural resources is carried out;
• the quality of constructed models was tested on the basis of the statistical criteria of Student’s, Fisher’ s, Durbin-Watson’ tests.
|Сведения:||Olga Ph. Chistik, Doctor of Economics, Professor, Samara State University of Economics.||31|
|CLUSTER ANALYSIS IN ESTIMATION OF LEVEL AND QUALITY OF LIFE OF POPULATION IN SUBJECTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION|
|The application of hierarchical cluster analysis of RF subjects from the perspective of the level and quality of life of the population is considered. On the basis of statistical information, the work presents the results of regions division according to the main indicators of the level and quality of life. The study identifies five clusters: low, below average, medium, above average and high quality of life. To characterize the subjects of the Russian Federation, a system of socio-economic indicators of the level and quality of life is used (average per capita income of the population, poverty level, life expectancy, registered unemployment, morbidity, pollution, residential area per capita, etc.).
Keywords: level and quality of life, classification of subjects, linear transformation, multivariate statistical analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis.
• indicators that characterize the level and quality of life of the population in the regions of the Russian Federation are identified;
• clustering of RF regions by the level and quality of life of the population is carried out;
• the analysis of the composition of clusters is carried out.
|Сведения:||Roza V. Ovsyannikova, a Master’s Degree student, Samara State University of Economics.||38|
|FINANCE, CURRENCY CIRCULATION AND CREDIT|
|Gamarnikova N.V., Kalinichenko M.S., Savelieva M.Yu.|
|CHECKING FINANCIAL REPORTING RELIABILITY OF RUSSIAN COMPANIES IN THE PERIOD OF CRISIS PHENOMENA IN THE ECONOMY|
|The technical and economic paradigm of Carlota Perez has been studied, proving the interconnection of financial crises and long waves in the economy, each phase of which imposes an imprint on the relationship between financial and productive capital. One of the characteristics of finance during this or that phase of such waves is various options for manipulation and outright fraud with information. This type of financial behavior can occur at any phase of the wave, but the frequency of its appearance can vary significantly. In accordance with the technical and economic paradigm, different types of manipulation are encountered during the aggression phase, i.e. in times of economic crisis. The hypothesis is put forward that in the Russian economy, which is currently at the final stage of the aggression phase in accordance with the technical and economic paradigm, there are a large number of companies actively engaged in manipulating financial reporting. The study of financial statements of companies of different types of activities from four regions of the Siberian Federal District allowed confirming the hypothesis put forward. It is proved that the methodology for verifying financial statements for reliability in the interests of all groups of stakeholders of companies requires further development.
Keywords: technical and economic paradigm, financial reporting manipulation, M Benisha M-score model, TATA coefficient.
• a hypothesis has been put forward that the frequency of various types of information manipulation depends on the phase of individual waves propagating successive technological revolutions;
• according to the results of empirical studies it was proved that during the crisis of the Russian economy, the manipulation of financial reporting in the practice of Russian companies of different industry and different regions was massive;
• it is justified that the phase of the recession, in which the Russian economy is now, requires the introduction of new accounting rules, new information release rules and ensuring its reliability to protect the interests of all stakeholder groups of companies.
|Email:||email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com|
|Сведения:||Natalia V. Gamarnikova, the Department of Corporate Management and Finance; Marina S. Kalinichenko, the Department of Corporate Management and Finance; Marina Yu. Savelieva, Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor of Department of Corporate Management and Finance - Novosibirsk State University of Economics and Management.||46|
|Gorodilov M.A., Kotova K.Yu.|
|EVALUATION OF BANKING ACTIVITIES BY INTERESTED USERS ON THE BASIS OF BALANCED INDICATORS IN THE MULTI-LEVEL SYSTEM|
|The urgency of introduction of new approaches to management in banks is underlined. One such approach is evaluation of banking activity by interested users on the basis of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) developed by R. Kaplan and D. Norton. The users and their interests are systematized, which can be satisfied when using BSC in banks. A multi-level BSC has been developed that is adapted to the specifics of banks’ activities - to work on the financial market - and takes into account the requirements of prudential regulation by the Bank of Russia and measures aimed at limiting bank risks. The system contains a list of directions for building indicators, which, in addition to traditional indicators developed in the classical approach (finance, clients, processes, personnel), includes a block of indicators on risks and regulations of the Central Bank of Russia.
Keywords: management accounting in banks, users of management reporting, balanced scorecard, strategic map, key performance indicators, banking risks, CBR standards.
• he information needs of interested users of banks’ accounting and reporting information have been studied;
• approaches to the presentation of information in banks are analyzed;
• the structure of the multi-level Balanced Scorecard is developed, taking into account the prudential and regulatory regulation of banking activities at different levels.
|Сведения:||Mikhail A. Gorodilov, Doctor of Economics, Head of the Department of Accounting, Audit and Economic Analysis; Ksenia Yu. Kotova, Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor of the Department of Accounting, Audit and Economic Analysis - Perm State National Research University.||60|
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