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Вестник самарского государственного экономического университета
Vestnik of Samara State University of Economics
2020 №11 (193)
USA foreign trade of agricultural products has been determining the functioning of the international market of agricultural products for at least 70 years. The article analyzes statistical indicators and social processes that reflect the dynamics of the structure of export-import operations of the country in the context of certain product groups. The purpose of the study was to identify and scientifically substantiate trends in structural changes in US foreign trade of agricultural products that have been formed over a long period at the international level under the influence of objective and subjective factors of foreign economic activity. The author used historical, abstract-logical, and statistical-economic research methods. The theoretical and hypothetical basis of the study is the conceptual position on export orientation and a high degree of expansionism of agricultural USA foreign trade, strongly supported by active measures of state regulation. The results of the study sufficiently confirm this hypothesis about stimulating the development of USA agriculture through the development of foreign trade operations on the international market, regardless of the prevailing factors, including the assessment of product competitiveness and trade confrontation. The author believes that considerable opportunities of overcoming the crisis phenomena, characterizing from time to time the American agribusiness. This opinion was based on identified trends of structural changes of USA foreign trade of agricultural products, most important of which is constant, although slow, export growth, favourable trade balance, expansionary trade policy and at the same time the domestic market protection, the continuous diversification of products in the export and import product groups, states assistance. This overcoming, as the analysis of concrete figures and facts shows, has always occurred and is likely to occur now through the use of active trade-market and state-lobbying (including political) mechanisms.
Keywords: USA agriculture, USA foreign trade, structure of foreign trade in agricultural products, export, import, external imbalance, agricultural market, state regulation. Highlights: ♦ the structure dynamics of the USA foreign trade operations in 1946-2019 in major product groups, the results of which identified as the general direction of development (growth and decline) of export and import of basic goods and trade balance, and specific trends that reflect the structural changes in the nomenclature and nature (degree of processing) of exported and imported consumer goods; ♦ the cause-and-effect relationships are revealed, the main causes and the decisive factors are formulated. Under the influence of these factors the spatial-temporal structure of USA foreign trade of agricultural products was formulated. This structure for a long time differs in national export-oriented agricultural production, the strong expansionist orientation of foreign policy, a significant degree of state regulation (in expanding exports and protecting the domestic market); ♦ the nature and consequences of the current foreign trade dynamics of products structure of the agricultural sector of the USA, expressed in steady trends of slower growth of exports of American agricultural products, weakening the competitiveness of national producers on the world market, another threat of permanent chronic overproduction of agricultural products.
Сведения:Valery N. Minat, Candidate of Geography, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Economics and Management Department of the Ryazan State Agrotechnological University named after P. A. Kostychev
In an unstable macroeconomic and regional environment, stimulating the innovation activity of the economy becomes strategic, ensuring the economic stability of the state. The country`s entities need to develop and increase their investment attractiveness. One of the most important tasks is to support innovation activity and implement digital solutions in the types of activities that form the economic specialization of the region. New technologies make it possible to improve production and management processes, use resources more economically, and reduce costs and energy losses. The scientific problem is the formation of a methodological approach to assessing the effectiveness of forms and methods of managing innovation processes at various levels of management, identifying qualitative relationships between business entities and government authorities. This article defines the factors and conditions of innovation activity in regions with different levels of development. The study is aimed at determining the key factors influencing innovation activity in the regions and forming a methodological approach to its assessment. In Russian and foreign science, approaches to assessing this area differ. In the first case, organizational, economic and financial stimulating factors are prioritized, while in the second case, the emphasis on knowledge and continuity between the achieved and innovative intellectual results prevail. The strategic approach to the development of the system innovation process based on the regulatory framework provides for several interrelated areas that determine the high rate of economic modernization: business, science, education, and competence. A methodological approach is suggested that allows assessing innovation activity at the level of the country`s entities and industries that form the regions` specialization. The study revealed that the regions do not have sufficient resources to develop and implement innovations, so private companies may be involved in public-private partnerships. Stimulating innovation activity in the economy is a complex task related to staffing, implementation of scientific and technological progress solutions in production and management.
Keywords: innovations, innovative activity, regional economy, factors of innovation stimulation, indicators of innovative development. Highligh ts: ♦ the factors of stimulating innovation activity at various levels of economic management (local, industry, regional, integration) are determined; ♦ a system of indicators for a comprehensive analysis of the innovative development of economic systems at various levels of management has been formed; ♦ a methodological approach to assessing innovation activity is proposed, aimed at developing scenario options for innovative development of the research object, justifying the choice of technologies, mechanisms, and programs for implementing the priority option; ♦ the paper presents conceptual approaches to assessing the region`s innovation activity in domestic and foreign studies.
Сведения:Matvey S. Oborin, Doctor of Economics, Professor of the Economic Analysis and Statistics Department of the Perm Institute (branch) of the Russian University of Economics named after G.V. Plekhanov, Professor of the World and Regional Economy, and Economic Theory Department of Perm State National Research University, Professor of the Management Department of the Perm State Agro-technological University named after D.N. Pryanishnikov, Professor of the Management and Technology in Tourism and Service Department of the Sochi State University.
The article analyzes the features of corporate control and corporate governance in Russian public joint-stock companies (PJSC) with large private owners. The factors that indicate the manifestation of corporate control are analyzed: the position of a major shareholder in the company`s governance bodies and the powers of governance bodies in relation to controlling the activities of top management. The analysis of corporate governance features using the GAMMA (Standard & Poor`s) methodology is carried out. The study showed the high role of a large owner in controlling the activities of the company`s top executive body. This is due to the position of the owner in the governance bodies, in most cases, this is the position of the Chairman of the Directors Board. In addition to the owner`s initiative, the corporate governance system in companies with a large private owner is also influenced by other factors: the presence of minority shareholders and listing on stock exchanges, including foreign ones. As in most emerging economies, majority shareholders determine corporate governance processes in Russian companies. The representation of independent directors in the studied companies is generally significant, and in half of the companies it is half and the majority of the sample, which indicates an effective system of checks and balances.
Keywords: share capital, joint-stock companies, joint-stock ownership, corporation, corporate relations, corporate control, corporate governance, property relations. Highligh ts: ♦ the features of corporate control in Russian companies with a large private owner are revealed; ♦ the impact of a large frequent owner on the formation of elements of corporate governance (business transparency and the activities of the Board of Directors); ♦ the factors influencing the corporate governance system in public companies with a large private shareholder are identified.
Email:IBelyaeva@fa.ru; ODanilova@fa.ru; KVUskov@fa.ru
Сведения:Irina Yu. Belyaeva, Doctor of Economics, Professor.; Olga V. Danilova, Doctor of Economics, Professor.; Kirill V. Uskov, Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor. - Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow.
The article considers the practice of using distance educational technologies used in the implementation of the main educational programs of higher education, which can be presented as additional tools for the formation of professional competencies, as well as the main ones that act as a traditional form of education. The article presents the results of a marketing study of students` attitude to the practice of using distance technologies in education. The economic aspects of the development of distance technologies in higher education institutions are considered.
Keywords: economy of distance education, research of consumer preferences, e-learning, distance education technologies, assessment of indicators of distance education technologies` application, higher education. Highligh ts: ♦ when preparing specialists for further professional activities in such areas as service and tourism, an important aspect is information systems, the use of which allows universities to implement e-learning (distance learning) based on distance education technologies, which can be presented as additional pedagogical tools, as well as the main ones, acting as a traditional form of education; ♦ consumer positions regarding the use of distance technologies in the higher education system are revealed; ♦ the requirements that employers will impose on the applicant in the modern information society, as well as the impact of Informatization in general and distance learning technologies on education are determined; ♦ the directions of improvement of the applied distance educational technologies in the training of specialists in the field of service and tourism are suggested; ♦ the economic aspects of the development and improvement of distance learning technologies are defined.
Сведения:Maria V. Vesloguzova, Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor; Lyudmila S. Petrik, Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor; Tatyana V. Nikonova, Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor. -Volga State Academy of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism, Kazan.
Currently, society and the economy are experiencing increasing problems affecting the sustainability of its growth and development, the environment, poverty and social security. The deformation of the social state model has been very noticeable for several decades. At the same time, a smaller part of the world`s population has no desire to give up the achieved level of well-being, and a larger part has no opportunity to improve it. In addition, the world economy shows instability and lack of resources for development. The state generally reduces its functions in the social sphere and makes the transition from a model of social protection to a model of social sufficiency, which is an element of social entrepreneurship. The reduction in the social rights and guarantees forces us and the world scientific community to look for a "replacement" of the social protection system, since the absence of guarantees does not mean the absence of social problems. In this context, social entrepreneurship, as a niche type of enterprise, has a large underutilized potential and can help society develop a "shared value" economy. The year 2020 in the context of the pandemic showed a significant vulnerability of small businesses. In conditions of uncertainty, its opportunities, for example, in terms of creating jobs and charitable activities, are reduced, and the public`s demand for social protection and health increases. The emergence and development of social entrepreneur-ship is presented as another mechanism, in addition to the activities of NPO (non-profit organisation) and charities, solving social problems on a permanent financial basis, which does not depend on the probability of receiving a grant or the benefactor possibilities. Recommendations for the development of social entrepreneurship affect the methodological foundations and methodological tasks, and are also aimed at creating a certain institutional framework that allows to coordinate the interests and actions of all stakeholders.
Keywords: social entrepreneurship, social firm, positive external effects, public goods. Highligh ts: ♦ the transition from the social protection system to the social sufficiency model is justified; ♦ some prerequisites for the emergence of social entrepreneurship are highlighted; ♦ the prospects and limitations of social entrepreneurship development are shown.
Email: kafedra-et@mail.ru
Сведения:Olga E. Malykh, Doctor of Economics, Professor, Professor of the Economic Theory Department of the Ufa State Petroleum Technological University.
The relevance of the study is justified by the situation on the market of educational services related to the redistribution of budget places between leading and regional higher education institutions of the country, as well as with increasing competition among universities and educational programs for applicants. The paper reflects the results of a study of students` opinions on their experience in choosing a higher education institution and educational programs. The purpose of the study is to identify the most significant criteria for choosing a university and educational programs, and to develop promising areas for marketing development in the positioning and promotion of educational programs. The practical relevance of the study is the possibility of applying the results obtained in the practical activities of various educational institutions in order to identify the preferences of applicants when choosing educational programs and universities.
Keywords: marketing, education, educational program, positioning, promotion program. Highligh ts: ♦ the theoretical position on the need to expand the existing set of criteria when choosing university applicants based on changes in the external environment, including in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, is substantiated; ♦ the most significant criteria are identified, and a comprehensive assessment of applicants` preferences when choosing a university and educational programs is given; ♦ practical recommendations on the positioning and promotion of educational programs are offered, taking into account the identified criteria of significance for applicants when choosing a university.
Email:olgav1982@mail.ru; anton4enkonataly@gmail.com
Сведения:Olga V. Martynova, Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor of Marketing Department.; Natalia G. Antonchenko, Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor of Marketing Department. - Institute of Management, Economics and Finance of Kazan Federal University.
The article presents the results of the analysis of current trends in the development of technologies in the field of hospitality, as well as related problems. The authors classify innovations taking into account their place and role in the activities of funds investment. The main obstacles to the introduction of innovations in the hotel sector are analyzed. Special attention is focused on the development of systematic methodological approaches to the innovative development of the hotel.
Keywords: innovative technologies, hotel, innovative development, pandemic, the field of hospitality. Highligh ts: ♦ features of technological development of the hotel services market are defined; ♦ the criteria for classification of innovative technologies in the hospitality sector from the point of view of their practical application are substantiated; ♦ an algorithm for implementing innovative technologies in a hotel enterprise has been developed; ♦ a methodological complex is proposed for the development of a comprehensive program of the hotel technological development.
Сведения:Olga N. Perezhogina, Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor of the Service and Tourism Department of the Volga Academy of Physical Culture, Sports and Tourism, Kazan.
Economic efficiency of energy-saving, energy consumption and integrated approach to its assessment
The article conducts an economic analysis of energy use and energy intensity of GDP of the Russian Federation, the status of energy efficiency and energy entities in connection with the increase in demand on energy resources, with the increase in demand on energy resources, development of energy efficiency technologies, reducing energy intensity and increasing the level of energy security of market entities. The authors substantiate the issues of increasing the volumes and scales of investment use in energy efficiency. The paper studies a comprehensive plan of measures to improve the economic efficiency of energy saving and energy consumption in the Russian economy. Methodical provision of assessment of energy intensity of Russian GDP is studied, estimated effects of selected factors on the dynamics of energy intensity of Russian GDP is assessed, which allowed to identify the following: a common method of assessment the economic efficiency and energy consumption of enterprises and organizations, as well as the effectiveness of the system of energy expenditure management does not currently exist. The authors suggest a method for assessing the efficiency of energy consumption, which makes it possible to link the factors of influence into a single indicator and assess the value of current energy efficiency.
Keywords: methodology, economic assessment, energy consumption market, energy expenditures, energy intensity, energy-saving, influence factors, economic efficiency, calculations, economic indicators, legislation, regulations. Highligh ts: ♦ currently, due to the increase in market demand for energy resources, it is becoming more urgent to increase economic efficiency and develop energy-saving technologies, the main purpose of which is to effectively address global issues of economic growth, reduce the energy intensity of energy consumption, and to improve the energy security of market entities; ♦ the volumes and scales of investment in energy efficiency and energy conservation are significant because of their contribution to the development of demand for energy, for primary energy resources; ♦ in order to justify their energy consumption by business entities, it is necessary to make an economic assessment of energy efficiency, for which the authors have defined the parameters for assessing economic energy efficiency: 1) economic efficiency of use of capacities for implementation, synchronization and the quality of functioning; 2) level of productivity at the enterprise, organization; 3) the economic efficiency of energy resources; 4) economic efficiency of infrastructure support; ♦ the economic efficiency of energy consumption is significantly affected by the following factors: readiness and ability of the enterprise to carry out measures for energy-saving and development of innovative technologies in the field of energy efficiency, development of innovative activity in the enterprise`s activities, the economic energy efficiency indicators considered in the evaluating methodology using correction coefficients; ♦ as a result, the authors propose a methodology of economic assessment of energy efficiency, reflecting the above parameters and the degree of efficiency of using a specific resource base.
Email:tnm-samara@mail.ru; kate011087@rambler.ru
Сведения:Nikolay M. Tyukavkin, Doctor of Economics, Professor, Head of the Innovation Economics Department.; Ekaterina S. Podbornova, Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor of the Innovation Economics Department. - Samara National Research University named after academican S.P. Korolev.
The appearance of new global challenges of economic development actualizes the problem of creating an effective system of economic enterprises` security. One of the main tools for ensuring economic security is audit. An audit of non-financial statements can significantly improve the reliability of the reporting information provided due to the disclosure of additional non-financial indicators. The purpose of the study is to determine the role of audit in the system of economic security of organizations, as well as to assess the level of verification of corporate reporting of Russian companies. The information base of the study is the corporate reporting of the largest Russian companies in the metallurgical industry.
Keywords: non-financial accounting, audit, economic security of enterprises. Highligh ts: ♦ the analysis of the regulatory framework in the field of audit of non-financial accounting is carried out; ♦ the purpose and procedure for conducting an audit of non-financial accounting are defined; ♦ the assessment of the level of verification of Russian enterprises reporting in the metallurgical sector was carried out; ♦ the reasons for the low level of verification of non-financial reports are identified; ♦ the possible ways to improve the quality of audit procedures in relation to non-financial data are formulated.
Сведения:Viktoriya V. Kozhukhova, Lecturer at Samara State University of Economics.
To build a model for evaluating the dividend policy, the main determinants were selected. An attempt is made to justify the algorithm for evaluating the optimal dividend policy for interested parties by building a rating based on models taking into account the influence of the industry factor.
Keywords: dividend policy, owners, investors, government, capitalization, dividend yield, EPS, rating. Highligh ts: ♦ the determinants of dividend policy have been analyzed: the market stock price, dividend yield, net profit per share, dividend yield ratio, return on equity, net return, the multiplier is "price/profit", multiplier "price/earnings" multiplier "price/balance sheet value", the share of state participation in stock capital; ♦ models of dependence of market value and EPS on the main determinants of the dividend policy are developed; ♦ an algorithm for evaluating the dividend policy for shareholders and the state has been developed based on a rating approach that takes into account the impact of industry features.
Сведения:Oksana I. Maksimenko, Postgraduate student, Senior Lecturer at Syktyvkar State University named after Pitirim Sorokin.
The purpose of this study is to model approaches to assessing the value and managing the cost and efficiency of using human capital (Human Capital, HC) in the formation of a rational personnel strategy in an organization providing medical services to the population of the Republic of Tatarstan. The article offers the author`s methodology for evaluating investments in the formation and development of HC and their management, which allows to assess the investment attractiveness of solutions for the use of human capital in areas of activity related to high qualification and motivation of specialists. The proposed methodology was tested in the DATC (diagnostic and treatment center) "MEDEL".
Keywords: intellectual capital, human capital, reproduction of human capital, investment in human capital, cost of human capital, risk assessment of investments aimed at the development of human capital. Highligh ts: ♦ it is revealed that the volumes of investment in human capital development in a medical organization "MEDEL", providing multifunctional high-tech services to the population of the Republic of Tatarstan, do not correspond to the optimal level to fully develop the human potential of qualified professionals. This is especially true for investments in payment and financial incentives of leading specialists and young employees, training and professional development of staff, organization of the labor process and control of its execution; ♦ the main risks that have a direct impact on the cost of HC are identified, including the turnover of young professionals due to the lack of career prospects and non-competitive wages, problems of professional development and employee rotation, and insufficient rational organization of the labor process; ♦ author`s suggestions for modeling the investment cost in the development of human capital in the studied medical organization are developed.
Email:bigman_59@mail.ru; halbi@mail.ru
Сведения:Alexey V. Bolshov, Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor.; Albina D. Khairullina, Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor. - Institute of Management, Economics and Finance of Kazan Federal University.
The article analyzes the problem of improving the safety of transport processes on Russian Railways through the introduction of automated methods for assessing the risk behavior of personnel. To provide high-quality transport services, the company should organize a risk management system and comply the guaranteed safety of the transportation process, namely, perform such tasks as identifying potential risk areas and assessing the possibility of preventing or minimizing risks, preventing the risks occurrence based on their systematic forecasting and evaluation, creating management tools and mechanisms that implement effective risk management. We consider the regulatory framework for developing software that performs automated testing using certain methods, systematization and storage of results, as well as the formation of recommendations to minimize the probability of risky behavior. This system will improve the safety of transportation, improve the quality of risk management and their assessment by creating an environment for analyzing dangerous risk factors, i.e. dangerous sources that affect the safety of the transportation process.
Keywords: automated behavior testing, risk management, risk tendencies. Highligh ts: ♦ automation of the process of processing information supplemented with data from related information systems can become a foundation for intellectual analysis of data on inherent risks of personnel or a basis for analyzing the causes of technological violations; ♦ automation allows to analyze the condition of an employee with the identification of a tendency to certain violations of labor discipline on an arbitrary scale; ♦ the manager has the opportunity to get more complete information about the employees of his department, which contributes to the improvement of the management system and the development of the organization`s safety culture.
Email:frantasov@mail.ru; papirovskaya@gmail.com
Сведения:Dmitry N. Frantasov, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Samara State University of Economics.; Larisa I. Papirovskaya, Associate Professor of Samara State Transport University.
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