|Вестник самарского государственного экономического университета
Vestnik of Samara State University of Economics
|2020 №12 (194)
|PROMOTION OF AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS FROM THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA|
|The active promotion of agricultural exports of the United States as the world`s leading country in agricultural production has been based on a flexible combination of various elements of systemic support, encouragement and assistance to this sector of the economy from the state for many years. For scientific consideration of the process of the promotion evolution of American agricultural exports as an economic phenomenon, a study was conducted to identify trends and forms of stimulating the export of US agricultural products in the period 1946-2019. A theoretical analysis of the problem of the appropriate combination of means, tools and methods of their implementation allowed us to find out a number of effects of stimulating US agricultural exports. Based on the use of historical, abstract-logical, and statistical-economic research methods, the author shows a significant and decisive role of stimulating US agricultural exports in the formation of its volume and positive trade balance. Structural complement of direct and indirect measures to stimulate exports of US agricultural products at certain stages, allocated within the considered time period, contributed to the active development of large export-oriented American agricultural producers by a competent combination of financial-market and direct distribution (dirigisme) approaches.
Keywords: US agriculture, US foreign trade, stimulating the export of agricultural products, trade balance, forms, means, tools for stimulating exports. Highlights:
♦ the author considers forms, tools and instruments promoting the export of agricultural products of the United States having a hierarchy and subordination; based on the data of official statistics, the ways of practical implementation of such incentives in 1946-2019 years are revealed;
♦ the general trend of promoting exports of US agricultural products over a specified period, based on a flexible combination and complementarity of state support, encourage, promotion and assistance for agricultural exports in the context of the trade policy;
♦ the author shows the priority role of state and public-private incentives for the export of US agricultural products in 1946-2019 in the formation of the total volume of agricultural exports, in maintaining an active trade balance for agricultural goods and in the active development of an export-oriented American agricultural producer at the transnational/global level.
|Сведения:||Minat Valery Nikolaevich, Candidate of Geographical Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Economics and Management of the Ryazan State Agrotechnological University named after P. A. Kostychev.||9|
|Nedorezova E.S., Kozhemyakin D.A., Osipov N.S.|
|ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF SOCIO-CULTURAL FACTORS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE VENTURE MARKET (WORLD EXPERIENCE)|
|The development process and the current state of venture capital markets are analyzed on the example of China and the United States. The study confirmed the negative impact of the socio-cultural indicator of uncertainty avoidance and the positive impact of the individualism indicator on the country`s venture capital market through new and updated data (compared to previous studies).
Keywords: venture capital, venture market, startup, socio-cultural factors, Silicon Valley, innovative development. Highlights:
♦ of all the socio-cultural factors that influence the venture capital market, the degree of individualism and avoidance of uncertainty stands out in particular;
♦ China is a good example of how it is possible to organize the development of a large-scale venture infrastructure, using individual characteristics;
♦ in terms of avoiding uncertainty, Russia occupies one of the highest positions in the world, which puts it in an unfavorable position in terms of the prospects for the development of the venture market.
|Email:||firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Сведения:||Nedorezova Elena Sergeevna, Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor.; Kozhemyakin Daniil Andreevich, PhD student. Osipov Nikita Sergeyevich, Master. - Samara State University of Economics.||19|
|ECONOMICS, ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONS, BRANCHES, COMPLEXES|
|Ashmarina S.I., Kandrashina E.A., Plaksina I.A.|
|MODELING DIRECTED CHANGES IN GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS AS A PROMISING DEVELOPMENT DIRECTION OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT THEORIES AND METHODOLOGIES|
|In the context of ongoing changes affecting the existing system of world economic relations and the structure of many global markets, the sources of which are both economic and non-economic in nature, the Russian President Vladimir Putin has updated the task of bringing the country`s economy to higher than world growth rates. Inevitable restructuring of global value chains in the course of another crisis caused by the spread of a new Coronavirus infection requires a new approach to modeling changes in global chains, as well as to determining the optimal places for national companies to integrate into them. The purpose of this research is to study the necessity and possibilities of modeling changes in global value chains in the context of the transformation of the structure of global markets and world economic relations. Modeling changes in global value chains, assessing the ability and capacity of national companies to take the best positions in them serve as the basis for proactive management of changes in the manufacturing industry, both at the state level and at the level of individual companies. Thus, the development of a new scientific approach to modeling changes in value chains is aimed at justifying opportunities and conditions for improving the competitiveness of the national economy and business and, as a result, for accelerating economic growth.
Keywords, economic growth, economic security, business structures, global value chains, sustainability of global chains, directed changes. Highlights:
♦ the efficiency of companies involved in global value chains has impact on the sustainable growth of the national economy; the increase in the importance of this impact determines the expansion of the range of studies devoted to this area;
♦ modeling the transformation of value chains should be carried out on the basis of principles of maintaining a balance between the economic interests of the participants in the chains and the priorities of the national economy;
♦ criteria for the feasibility of including national companies in global value chains should be effects of import substitution and export orientation, as well as increasing the share of value added of high-tech products developed throughout the country;
♦ the development of national industry through the production of high-value-added goods on an innovative basis through flexible integration into global value chains is an important source of economic growth of the national economy, and meeting the criteria of import substitution and export orientation is a factor in ensuring the national economic security.
|Email:||email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com|
|Сведения:||Ashmarina Svetlana Igorevna, Doctor of Economics, Professor.; Kandrashina Elena Aleksandrovna, Doctor of Economics, Professor.; Plaksina Irina Anatolievna, Head of the Competition and Grant Support Department. — Samara State University of Economics.||30|
|Bazhutkina L.P., Khansevyarov R.I., Suraeva M.O.|
|MODERN INFRASTRUCTURE ELEMENTS TO SUPPORT SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED BUSINESSES|
|The article presents an analysis of existing practices in the development of infrastructure to support small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs); systematizes the organization forms of business support, their functions and current directions of the formation of infrastructure to support SMEs; offers a flowchart of interaction of organization forms to support the development of SMEs.
Keywords infrastructure, entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship support, small entrepreneurship, medium entrepreneurship. Highlights:
♦ the federal and regional levels of support infrastructure for Russian small and medium-sized businesses that ensure stable functioning and the development of their activities in modern economic conditions are considered;
♦ tools of the interaction mechanism of the infrastructure elements to support small and medium-sized businesses in the Russian Federation are formulated;
♦ the role of universities in supporting Russian youth small and medium-sized businesses is shown.
|Сведения:||Bazhutkina Lidiya Pavlovna, Doctor of Economics, Chief Researcher; Khansevyarov Rustam Idrisovich, Doctor of Economics, Professor; Suraeva Maria Olegovna, Doctor of Economics, Professor. - Samara State University of Economics.||41|
|Zinurov V.E., Galimova A.P.|
|ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF SEPARATION DEVICES APPLICATION AT ENTERPRISES WITH PAINT CHAMBERS|
|The economic efficiency of the separation devices application at enterprises with paint chambers is evaluated. It is proposed to integrate the separation devices in the air flow preparation line of the paint chambers before the fine filters to increase their operational life. It is predicted that the use of separation devices as a preliminary stage for cleaning gas flows from fine particles before fabric filters will increase their operational life by 1.5 times. The relevance of the topic lies in the fact that the calculation of the economic feasibility of the separation devices application at the enterprise is an important process that allows you to prevent unnecessary financial costs and ensure the sustainable development of the whole company. The evaluation of the application of separation devices was carried out on the basis of the following indicators: net discounted income, profitability index and discounted payback period of the project. The main costs affecting the calculation of the cost-effectiveness assessment of the separation devices application at enterprises with paint chambers are considered. The conducted assessment of the economic efficiency of the separation devices application at enterprises with paint chambers demonstrated that this event is economically profitable.
Keywords separation device, economic efficiency, economic feasibility, net discounted income, discounting of cash flows, profitability index, payback period, implementation of the device. Highlights:
♦ the economic efficiency of application of separation devices into the technological line of the enterprise with paint chambers is estimated on the basis of the following indicators: net discounted income, profitability index and discounted payback period of the project;
♦ the ways of reducing the discounted payback period of the project and increasing the profitability index are considered;
♦ the change in the net discounted income of the project with different efficiency of separation devices is investigated.
|Сведения:||Zinurov Vadim Eduardovich, post-graduate student.; Galimova Alsu Ravilevna, student. — Kazan State Power Engineering University.||50|
|Petrik L.S., Gabdrakhmanova Z.Z.|
|SOCIAL TOURISM AS A DRIVER FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INCLUSIVE ENVIRONMENT OF HOTEL ENTERPRISES|
|The article analyzes activities of hotel companies that form an inclusive environment and are focused on the provision of social services. The authors have created a checklist that allows you to conduct a kind of audit of the readiness of a hotel room to accept customers with disabilities. Ready-made solutions for the arrangement of an inclusive environment of hotel rooms for persons with hearing impairment are given. The economic advantages of creating an inclusive environment for a hotel company are identified, and the necessary investments for the implementation of the proposed project are evaluated.
Keywords: economy of the hotel enterprise, inclusive environment, competitiveness of hotels, accessible environment, social tourism, investments in the creation of an inclusive environment in the hotel sector. Highlights:
♦ the concept of "social tourism" as a factor in the development of the hotel business is considered;
♦ the article describes the activity of the hotel enterprise in terms of quantitative and qualitative indicators;
♦ recommendations for the development of an inclusive environment in the hotel are developed on the example of the organization of service for guests with hearing impairment.
|Сведения:||Petrik Lyudmila Sergeevna, Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Service and Tourism.; Gabdrakhmanova Zalia Zabirovna, master`s student. — Volga Region State Academy of Physical Culture, Sports and Tourism, Kazan.||60|
|DIGITALIZATION OF THE VALUE REPRODUCTION OF THE PUBLIC PRODUCT|
|The article summarizes approaches to the analysis of the cost processes of social reproduction in the digital economy. It is emphasized that digital platforms, the architecture of their construction transform the formation order of both the entire set of parameters and individual components of the value of the total social product. Along with the labor theory of value, the digital theory of value begins to take shape in the socio-economic reality. It is proved that in the conditions of the digital economy, the components of the total social product penetrate much deeper into the initial and subsequent processes of forming the components of the product value. There is a significant difference between the digital environment of reproduction processes and the corresponding socioeconomic environment in the conditions of the analog economy. It is argued that the economy digitalization also contributes to the establishment and calculation of macroeconomic indicators of the system of national accounts, based on a new technological level of construction. With the help of certain end-to-end digital platforms, it is possible to separately detail various reproduction processes of tools, objects of labor, labor resources, digital technologies and other material and intellectual factors of production at the macro level. Increasing the transparency of economic activity on the basis of digital platforms will reduce statistical discrepancies and reduce the possibility of the emergence of informal economic activity in the society.
Keywords reproduction of the public product, digital platforms, digital value, information technologies, value added, system of national accounts. Highlights:
♦ the reproduction process in the conditions of the economy digitalization requires the development of an appropriate theoretical and scientific-methodological base that provides competent practical steps for the development of network forms and methods of regulating the socioeconomic development;
♦ the essence and content of economic theory determine the need for an adequate reflection of digital transformations in the political and economic aspect of reproduction relations in the society;
♦ in the conditions of the digital economy, the components of the total social product penetrate much deeper into the initial and subsequent processes of forming elements of value, which allows us to have more advanced forms and methods of state regulation of the socio-economic development of the society;
♦ digital transformation of the economy contributes to the establishment and calculation of macroeconomic reproduction indicators of the system of national accounts, based on a new technological level of construction, which reduces possibilities of the shadow economy, expands the analytical apparatus of competent economic and mathematical modeling of socio-economic development.
|Сведения:||Sergeev Leonid Ivanovich, Doctor of Economics, Professor, Head of the Department of Economic Theory, Kaliningrad State Technical University, Honored Economist of the Russian Federation.||67|
|Titenko E.A., Mekush G.E.|
|COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN THE HEALTHCARE SECTOR|
|The article is devoted to the study of possible ways to improve the quality of health services. In connection with the growing role of domestic healthcare in the world arena, the issues of safety, efficiency, timeliness, as well as the quality of medical care are becoming a priority. Within the framework of the study, the analysis of domestic and foreign quality management systems (QMS) was carried out. Special attention is paid to the modern mechanism of QMS formation in Russia, its comparative analysis with the current foreign models is carried out. The study allowed us to reasonably talk about causes of the slow formation of the domestic QMS in the health sector. The results of the study can be useful both for direct managers of medical organizations and for management bodies in the field of healthcare.
Keywords: quality management system, quality of medical services, standardization of medical activities, accreditation, JCI. Highlights:
♦ the international experience of the quality management system in the field of healthcare is considered;
♦ the formation stage of the domestic quality management system is analyzed;
♦ a comparative analysis of the JCI standard and the Proposals (practical recommendations) for the organization of internal quality control and safety of medical activities in a medical organization developed by Roszdravnadzor, was carried out.
|Сведения:||Titenko Evgeniya Aleksandrovna, postgraduate student; Mekush Galina Egorovna, Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor, corresponding member of SAN VSH. — Kemerovo State University||80|
|PROBLEMS OF INNOVATIVE ACTIVITY OF BUSINESS SECTOR ENTERPRISES IN THE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS INDUSTRY|
|Indicators of innovative activity in the field of production of building materials are analyzed. The impact of investments on the effectiveness of innovative activities in comparison with industrial production and the construction industry is evaluated. The purpose of the study is to identify the relationship between the innovation cost and the volume of innovative products. The research is based on the use of statistical data and public data of Russian companies. The results of the study demonstrated the absence of a correlation between the innovation costs and the volume of innovative products due to the impact of a complex of factors that cause the slow application of innovative materials in construction.
Keywords: innovation, building materials, construction. Highlights:
♦ directions of innovative activity in the production of building materials are identified;
♦ an assessment of the relationship between the innovation costs and the volume of innovative products in the production of building materials and in industrial production is given;
♦ the key reasons for the identified inconsistencies are considered.
|Сведения:||Shepelev Artem Vasilievich, Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Applied Management, Samara State University of Economics.||86|
|Meirkhanova E.T., Zhidebekkyzy A.|
|METHODS OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT OF PROFESSIONAL ORIENTATION THAT AFFECT THE LABOR ECONOMY|
|In the context of the ongoing technological revolution affecting the structure of labor markets around the world, the role of education in the search for suitable work is becoming increasingly relevant. Recent developments, such as artificial intelligence, have led to the automation of many operational processes, increased productivity and reduced costs. Thus, the problems of unemployment have become noticeable among the population. Taking this fact into account, we note that the relationship between professional orientation and the labor economy should be determined in order to eliminate the potential gaps that exist between professions and market demand. The purpose of the study is to identify effective aspects of professional orientation project management that affect the labor market. Thus, this study answers the following questions: 1) what is the relationship between the different approaches of project management of professional orientation, the proposed education system and the labor economy; 2) how can the professional orientation of graduates contribute to the formation of a more competitive labor economy.
Keywords: labor economics, unemployment, project management, professional orientation, GDP. Highlights:
♦ methods influencing the labor economy through vocational guidance are analyzed, and it is determined that project and program approaches to vocational guidance are more effective in matters of unemployment, in comparison with the method of influencing employment institutions;
♦ the necessity of sharing responsibility for choosing a profession between the state, school management, teachers, professional consultants, parents and children is revealed;
♦ a survey was conducted explaining the close relationship between the level of education and employment, showing the need for the development of secondary special education;
♦ the necessity of optimizing the costs of secondary specialized and higher education by the state in order to increase the income of graduates and labor productivity is indicated.
|Сведения:||Meirkhanova Erkezhan Talgatkyzy, doctoral student; Zhidebekkyzy Aknur, Senior Lecturer, Deputy Dean of the Higher School of Economics and Business, Doctor of Philosophy. — Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty.||94|
|THE MIGRATION OF THE RURAL POPULATION IN THE LIPETSK REGION|
|Migration of the population, especially the rural one, most often causes a negative assessment of its possible consequences. At the same time, there is understanding of the inevitability of this process. For many rural residents, migration has become a boon: a salvation from unemployment, from social unrest. Therefore, objective assessment of all aspects of the migration process is required. Using statistical data on the population migration, labor resource balances, a study of migration and labor migration was conducted on the example of the Lipetsk region. The scale of migration within the region, as well as within other regions, and migration exchange with foreign countries, including with the nearest neighbors, are determined and evaluated. It was found that rural residents mostly prefer to move within the region, while more than half of urban residents are participants in interregional migration. In the interregional migration exchange, the Lipetsk region loses its population more and more. However, it is an attractive region for foreign migrants. Thanks to them, the region has a positive indicator of migration growth. It was found that the key reason for both migration and labor migration of the population is the lack of jobs there where potential migrants live. Problems with employment at the place of residence form the migration potential of rural areas, which currently accounts for about a third of the labor resources of rural areas. Based on the experience of economic development of certain municipal districts of the Lipetsk region, it can be stated that the creation of new high-paying jobs can significantly reduce the scale of both migration and labor migration.
Keywords population migration, intraregional migration, interregional migration, rural territories, rural population, labor resources, labor migration. Highlights:
♦ the author determined the scale and assessed the migration in the Lipetsk region as a whole, and in rural areas in particular;
♦ the key reason for migration in the region is justified;
♦ the state of migration in the context of administrative divisions of the Lipetsk region is analyzed;
♦ the negative aspects and positive aspects of labor migration are noted.
|Сведения:||Yugov Evgeny Alexandrovich, Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Agricultural Economics of the Voronezh State Agrarian University named after Emperor Peter I.||102|
|FINANCE, MONETARY CIRCULATION AND CREDIT|
|Lebedev A.V., Razumovskaya E.A.|
|METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE ANALYSIS OF THE RUSSIAN FINANCIAL SYSTEM|
|One of the stages of creating a methodology for assessing the impact of the financial system on the economic dynamics of the real sector of the Russian economy is considered. The methodological principles are based on the tools used in the member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to assess parameters of the financial market and the entire financial system. The authors attempt to prove that the introduction of additions to these instruments create the basis for a full-fledged methodology, through which it will be possible to assess the Russian financial conditions that have specific features. The scientific and theoretical content of the research is based on modern concepts that reveal the impact of the structure and state of the financial system on the pace of economic dynamics and are recognized in the international scientific community. In a theoretical way, modern and fundamental theories of economic growth are highlighted; the interpretation of the macroeconomic identity is clarified; the role of financial resources is noted (that the economic system potentially has in stimulating the economic growth). The interim result of the study is the proposal of two indicators, based on which it is assumed to conduct an extended analysis of the financial system and assess its impact on economic dynamics in the real sector of the national economy of Russia.
Keywords: structure of the financial system, socio-economic development, methodology of analysis of the financial system, national economy. Highlights:
♦ the theoretical concepts that allowed the authors to scientifically substantiate the methodological tools for analyzing the impact of the financial system on economic dynamics through the structure of financing of companies in the real and financial sectors are structured;
♦ the connection of fundamental and modern scientific concepts of economic growth with indicators of the state and structure of the financial system is substantiated;
♦ the article presents the methodological constructions of two author`s indicators for assessing the sufficiency of financing of the financial and real sectors of the Russian economy on the basis of the international methodology used by the OECD member countries.
|Сведения:||Lebedev Alexey Vitalyevich, Candidate of Economic Sciences, President of the Foundation for the Development of Qualifications and Competencies in the Ural Region, Yekaterinburg.; Razumovskaya Elena Aleksandrovna, Doctor of Economics, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of Finance, Monetary Circulation and Credit of the Ural State University of Economics, Yekaterinburg.||114|
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