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Вестник самарского государственного экономического университета
Vestnik of Samara State University of Economics
2018 №8 (166)
THEORY OF ECONOMICS
US CONSUMER PRICE INDEX IN THE PERIOD OF TWO WORLD WARS: HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT OF PRACTICE AND THEORETICAL CONCEPTS
The dynamics of prices in the consumer market is one of the important indicators of market processes and the state of the national economy, therefore the representativity and credibility of the consumer price index (CPI) should be provided by the appropriately elaborated calculation methodology, the breadth and validity of data collection and processing principles used. The article studies the history of formation and development of CPI on the basis of statistical, methodological and scientific publications on the US cost of living index, as theoretically the most substantiated and widely discussed in the indicator. The selected period - allows you to see the dynamics of the methodology for calculating the analyzed indicator, and in the information structure corresponding to the stages of data collection and calculation of the CPI of today, helps to compare the historical development of collection and calculation method with its current state. As a result of generalization and structuring of scientific and methodological data on the CPI, the stages of collecting and processing statistical information in the years 1910-1945 were formalized, which formed the basis for the international standard on consumer price statistics. The US experience is a guide to improve the CPI calculation methods that exist today in national economies.
Keywords: consumer price index, cost of living index, consumer price statistics, cost of living, bulletins of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, true cost of living index of Konusa, monitoring of household budgets. Highlights: ♦ the methodology for collection and processing of statistical information in order to calculate the CPI on the basis of provisions developed by the Federal Service of Statistics is identified; ♦ within the framework of each stage, information on the dynamics of methodological provisions for calculating the US cost of living index for the period from 1910 to 1945 is summarized; ♦ the comparison of the methodology used to calculate the period under review and Rosstat current developments concerning collection and processing of information on the dynamics of consumer prices is carried out.
Email:kozlova_mary@mail.ru
Сведения:Maria A. Kozlova, Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor of the Department of Statistics, Econometrics and Informatics, Ural State University of Economics, Yekaterinburg.
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REGIONAL ECONOMY
MECHANISM OF CLUSTERING REGIONAL ECONOMY (USING THE EXAMPLE OF THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY)
The issues of the development of the Russian automotive market, the dynamics of production with an emphasis on its main segments are considered. A mechanism for the formation of the main automobile clusters that are actively developing at present in Russia, including the Volga, North- Western and Central clusters is presented. The main limitations that prevent the increase in the degree of localization of the Russian automotive industry are considered.
Keywords: automobile industry, clusters, state support, investments, production volume, sales dynamics, exports, imports. Highlights: ♦ at present, there is a significant increase in the interest of foreign manufacturers of components, parts and production equipment for cars in relation to the Russian automotive industry, which shows a steady positive trend; ♦ the key drivers of the growth of the Russian automotive industry is the state policy of the industry development, which includes specific state programs based on the injection of large investments; ♦ the Russian automotive industry has significant problems related to the low degree of localization of production of auto components, with a high level of depreciation of fixed production assets, the segment of agricultural and construction machinery is inadequately represented; ♦ a great importance in the development of the automotive industry is the formation of cluster networks, formed both on a territorial basis and taking into account the functional purpose of specific segments of the automotive industry.
Email:mkonoval@mail.ru, pisakina83@yandex.ru
Сведения:Maria E. Konovalova, Doctor of Economics, Professor, head of the Department of Economic Theory; Olga Y. Kuzmina, Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor - Samara State University of Economics.
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ECONOMICS, ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONS, BRANCHES, COMPLEXES
OPPORTUNITIES TO ENHANCE THE COMPETITIVENESS OF THE COMPANY IN THE DIGITAL ECONOMY
In conditions of instability, globalization and digitalization of the economy, it is necessary to effectively manage the organization’s business processes and data entering or generated by it. With the transition to new stages of the life cycle in production, the number of business processes that transform the creation chains cost is increasing. Also during the life cycle of the organization, the amount of data is growing at all stages of the value chain. The article examines new competitive advantages that arise as a result of the system transformation of value chains under the influence of the industrial Internet, “smart” devices whose complex structure form the basis for the modernization of the entire company, the organizational structure of management, the production system. Traditional approaches to the formation of the competitiveness affect local changes in value chains. Modern trends in ensuring the competitiveness require large-scale and complex changes. It is concluded that modern economic challenges - a radical technological revolution, new ways of dealing with consumers, new opportunities for the development of value chains, innovative forms of communication - form new sources of the competitiveness of companies. Data and analytics are becoming a new source of competitive advantage.
Keywords: competitiveness, digital economy, smart product, digitalization, value chain. Highlights: ♦ the digital economy forms new sources of competitiveness of companies; ♦ the introduction of breakthrough technologies in the activities of companies requires a revision of ♦ the company strategy; ♦ the structure of product changes; ♦ smart technologies create the basis for the formation of new competitive advantages; ♦ data and analytics are becoming a new source of competitive advantage.
Email:89876601130@mail.ru
Сведения:Roman A. Nikulin, a post-graduate student, Kazan Federal University.
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ECONOMIC GROWTH OF REGIONAL SERVICES BASED ON THE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF MEDICAL AND HEALTH INFRASTRUCTURE
The economic growth of the service sector has a positive impact on the development of regions as a whole, as the number of jobs, the profitability of the accompanying industries, and the attractiveness of territories increase. In the subjects of the Russian Federation with curative and recreational specialization, resort medicine and a sanatorium-and-spa complex are developing on the basis of the basic material infrastructure for the provision of medical and recreational services. The quality of infrastructure objects directly affects the sustainable growth of economic sectors in question, as it allows forming an effective pricing policy, satisfying consumers’ requests for quality therapeutic and diagnostic and rehabilitation procedures, maximally attracting funds for domestic investments of the territory. The problem is in the inconsistency of the medical and health infrastructure level to consumers’ needs and to needs of the sanatorium and resort complex to ensure a high quality of services. The purpose of the study is to study factors affecting modernization and commissioning of new facilities for medical and recreational infrastructure, to estimate the projected effect for regional services using the example of the Volga Federal District and the Perm Territory. Methods of research are the system approach, situational analysis, formal-logical method, dialectical method of studying social and economic processes. The important role of infrastructure in social and economic development of the service sector of regions is revealed. The state of health and resort medicine affects the quality of life of the population of territories, contributes to meeting the needs for treatment, and rehabilitation. The provision of services on the basis of medical and recreational infrastructure should be commercially and socially effective. The development and commissioning of new facilities and the complex should be justified, consistent with the level of demand and the policy of the district for the development of medical and health tourism and sanatorium and resort complex. The analysis of infrastructure revealed that, despite the reduction of profile organizations of the sanatorium and resort complex, there is a potential for its development involving untreated natural healing resources in the process of medical and recreational activities. The construction of new complexes and health resorts is associated with a more complete satisfaction of the population of the region in quality services, the growth of their volume, the diversity of needs of different groups of the population. The characteristics of undeveloped natural medicinal resources allow making a conclusion about their social and economic relevance, in connection with which it is expedient to put into operation new objects of medical and recreational infrastructure. Attraction of investments in projects that are important for the population will help to increase the turnover of the health-improving tourism industry and sanatorium and resort complex, will positively affect the quality of life, employment, as well as will increase volumes and tax revenues.
Keywords: economic growth, services, health infrastructure, institutions, natural curative resources, sanatorium and resort complex. Highlights: ♦ medical and recreational infrastructure is the basis for the growth of services in regions with resort and recreational specialization; ♦ the commissioning of infrastructure facilities in operation should correspond to social needs and commercial result; ♦ natural medical resources are an important factor in the development of medical and recreational infrastructure of territories; ♦ new facilities contribute to a steady increase in incomes of the service sector due to increased demand for services, employment and tax collections.
Email:recreachin@rambler.ru
Сведения:Matvey S. Oborin, Doctor of Economics, Professor of the Department of Economic Analysis and Statistics, Perm Institute (branch) of Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Professor of the Department of World and Regional Economics, Economic Theory, Perm State National Research University, Professor of the Department of Management, Perm State Agro-Technological University, Professor of the Department of Management and Technology in Tourism and Service, Sochi State University.
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MODERN FORMATION IMPERATIVES OF NEW ARCHITECT OF INDUSTRY
The purpose of this article is to develop principles and approaches to the formation of the architectonics of Russian industry in coordinates of the new economic reality, in accordance with which the formation in the space of the industrial sphere is determined, corresponding to modern requirements of innovative development of its raw and non-primary sectors. Since the architectonics of industry has so far largely been based on the Soviet experience of territorial-sectoral allocation of productive forces, neo-industrialization imperatives are involved in the research field, in accordance with which the architectural forms of the integration type have a significant innovative potential and are able to form the industrial and technological framework of the industry, thereby building an innovative geometry of this field. The methodological base of the research is formed on the basis of convergence of systemic, synergetic and evolutionary approaches, as well as key provisions of industrial development theories based on neoindustrialization. Promising forms of industrial development have been identified - integration units of a new type - points of innovative growth that, due to the specifics of unifying enterprises and their unique competences in the formation of innovations, produce not only innovative but also overall managerial resonance in the merger, industry and the region. The study identifies the main terminological constructs in the framework of the proposed approach. The main principles of architectonics formation in industries and modern tendencies of form-building in this sphere are revealed, which made it possible to draw a conclusion about the importance of constructing architectural forms of integration type for increasing the innovative and scientific and technological potential of industry.
Keywords: architectonics of industry, form-building, innovative development, industrial associations, scientific and innovation-technological potential. Highlights: ♦ the transition of the domestic economy to a new level of technological development is impossible without overcoming existing technological discontinuities in the industrial sphere; ♦ it is necessary to stimulate new forms of economic space in this sphere, in particular, through institutional support for the integration interaction of enterprises in production and scientific sectors, for intensive development of the scientific, innovation and technological potential of industry; ♦ the evolutionary approach to the analysis of tendencies of form-building in industry made it possible to identify the most promising architectural forms of industry that are the points of innovative development in this sphere and form its industrial and technological framework.
Email:matveeva_lg@mail.ru, ekapluk@gmail.com
Сведения:Lyudmila G. Matveeva, Doctor of Economics, Professor; Ekaterina V. Kaplyuk, assistant of the Department of Enterprise Economics - Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don.
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FINANCE, CURRENCY CIRCULATION AND CREDIT
PERSPECTIVES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ONLINE PROCESSING INDICATORS OF FINANCIAL AND TAX REPORTING IN HOLDING COMPANIES IN CONDITIONS OF INFORMATION-DIGITAL SPACE
The purpose of this study is to identify the basic prerequisites and conceptual trends in optimizing the electronic collection, processing, storage, transfer and use of data from financial, managerial and tax accounting holdings. The results of the study of the current state of accounting software systems in holdings made it possible to uncover contradictions between the existing technologies for generating reporting data and requirements of the digital economy. The analysis of the structure of intercompany electronic exchange of documents showed that the sector of enterprises under study is promising for the introduction of “intellectual digitization” and a system of consolidation of business processes, finance and controlling.
Keywords: holding companies, information technologies, accounting, corporate reporting, electronic document management, digitalization, country factor. Highlights: ♦ the main factors that form the current trends in the development of electronic processing of corporate reporting in holdings are identified; ♦ the assessment of the information and technical system (IT system) adaptability in the processing of information and the formation of reporting data to requirements of legislation in connection with the de-fogging of holdings is carried out; ♦ the development vectors of IT-systems are predicted on the basis of their integration, optimal correspondence to business needs and changes in the regulatory framework.
Email:potokina1@mail.ru
Сведения:Elena S. Potokina, a post-graduate student, Samara State University of Economics.
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DIRECTIONS OF HOLDING MANIPULATE TRANSACTIONS ON THE RUSSIAN FINANCIAL MARKET
The current issues of violations of parity pricing in financial markets of developed countries due to manipulative operations are disclosed. The precedent nature of counteraction to manipulative transactions is only now beginning to form, and, mainly, by the forces of state bodies. The authors of the article pointed out that the problem of manipulative practices is applied in the field of jurisprudence and law. Studies of automated methods for detecting abuses in the stock market are not adequately covered by modern specialists studying manipulative trade. In this regard, the analysis of its problems and the proposal of a generalized model solution to detect signs of manipulative trade through the automation of the bidding monitoring process have become the main objectives of this work. The object of research is manipulative transactions in the financial market. The subject of research methods to reveal manipulative transactions is considered. The scientific novelty of the work consists in justifying a generalized model solution for suppressing manipulative trade based on the k nearest neighbors method. The practical importance of the study is due to the fundamental possibility of using the proposed generalized solution for the computer algorithm constructed on the basis of the k nearest neighbors method, which can detect non-standard trading operations.
Keywords: manipulative trade and transactions, financial and stock market, automation of exchange trade. Highlights: ♦ the legal framework and practices of developed countries to determine the criteria for manipulative trading in financial markets are analyzed; ♦ the prerequisites for the formation of categories of manipulative trade are grounded; ♦ a model for revealing signs of manipulation in trade operations based on the k nearest neighbors method is proposed.
Email:rasumovskaya.pochta@gmail.com, fgeyrysdea@gmail.com
Сведения:Elena A. Razumovskaya, Doctor of Economics, Professor of the Department of Finance, Money Circulation and Credit, Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B. N. Yeltsin, Ural State University of Economics; Konstantin V. Pletnev, a postgraduate student, Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B. N. Yeltsin.
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REGULATION OF STATE FINANCIAL RESOURCES IN THE SUBJECT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
The issues of regulation of state financial resources in the subject of the Russian Federation are considered. It is noted that financial features of administrative-territorial subjects of federal states determine the specifics of the financial management mechanism. The principles of the sovereignty of territories included in federal states (political and managerial) are singled out. The influence of the factor of assigning powers on the formation and use of financial resources for the center and subjects of the Russian Federation on the implementation of the principle of independence of subjects is revealed. The higher the level of the legislative act that distributes management powers between the center and the subjects, the more stable is the management system created on its basis. The conclusion is made that the subject of financial management operates in conditions of legal restriction of choice of financial resources and directions of their use. The definition of state financial management is given. It is noted that the determining factor in the effectiveness of financial management is the organization of such an element as state financial control. The principles of state financial control are formulated, its types and factors are identified, both positively and negatively affecting its effectiveness. Proposals aimed at developing state financial control at the regional level have been formulated. The influence of regulation of state financial resources on the socio-economic development of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation is considered. In the region, two flows of state financial resources are running simultaneously - the federal budget and the regional budget. The structure of incomes and expenditures of the federal budget in the subject of the Russian Federation and budget incomes and expenditures of the subject of the Russian Federation is analyzed. The indicators characterizing the financial provision of state functions and reflecting the ratio of income and expenditure of federal and regional authorities to the region are proposed. Proposals are given to change approaches to the distribution of the revenue between budgets of different levels, as well as to determine a unified policy in the use of public financial resources, taking into account the needs of the Russian Federation and its subjects.
Keywords: state financial resources, regulation of state financial resources, state financial management, state financial control, federal budget and regional budget. Highlights: ♦ the issues of regulation of state financial resources in the subject of the Russian Federation are considered; ♦ the definition of public financial management is given; ♦ the principles of state financial control are formulated and its types are singled out; ♦ the proposals are given aimed at the development of state financial control at the regional level; ♦ the influence of the regulation of state financial resources on the regional socio-economic development is analyzed; ♦ the structure of incomes and expenditures of the federal budget in the territory of the subject of the Russian Federation and budget incomes and expenditures of the subject of the Russian Federation are analyzed.
Email:vestnik_sgeu@mail.ru
Сведения:Elvira T. Shaposhnikova, a post-graduate student, Samara State University of Economics.
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THEORY OF ECONOMICS
REGIONAL ECONOMY
ECONOMICS, ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONS, BRANCHES, COMPLEXES
FINANCE, CURRENCY CIRCULATION AND CREDIT
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